Syria

Recent updates

Syria

November 2023

Syria

October 2023

Syria

September 2023

Syria

August 2023

Syria

July 2023

Syria

June 2023

Syria

May 2023

Syria

April 2023

Syria

March 2023

Syria

March 2023

Syria

February 2023

Casualties

In December 2022, there were 44 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria, 22 of which resulted in 60 civilian casualties, 27 of whom were killed and 33 injured. At least five women and 12 children were reportedly among the civilian casualties. Civilians accounted for 50% of the total 119 casualties, as there were also 59 recorded armed-actor casualties, 42 of whom were killed and 17 injured.

The majority of civilian casualties, 95% (57), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 40% (24) occurred in villages, 18% (12) on public transport, 12% (7) in urban residential areas, 10% (6) in agricultural lands, 7% (4) in commercial premises, 3% (2) in other locations, and 2% (1) on roads and in schools, respectively.

The regions where civilian casualties of explosive weapon use were recorded in Syria were Deir Ezzor (14 civilian casualties), Idlib (12), Aleppo (12), Raqqa (11), Hasakah (5), Suweida (2), Latakia (2), Homs (1), and Daraa (1). 

The majority of civilian casualties, 53% (32), were reportedly caused by state use of explosive weapons, specifically Turkey (15 civilian casualties), Syria (14), the international coalition (2), and unknown state actors (1).  Non-state actors caused 37% (22) of civilian casualties, specifically ISIS (13 civilian casualties), unknown non-state actors (6), and the Syrian National Army (3). Actors of unknown name and status caused 10% (6) of civilian casualties.

The majority of civilian casualties, 28% (17), were caused by directly-emplaced weapons, specifically roadside bombs (12 civilian casualties), non-specific IEDs (2), landmines (2), and car bombs (1). Ground-launched weapons caused 23% (14) of civilian casualties, specifically artillery shelling (9 civilian casualties), grenades (3), non-specific shelling (1), and combined ground-launched weapons (1). Air-launched weapons, specifically air-strikes, caused 20% (12) of civilian casualties. Weapons of unclear launch method caused 28% (17) of civilian casualties, specifically missiles (13 civilian casualties), and rockets (4).

The highest casualty incident in Syria occurred on 30December 2022, when 10 civilians were killed and two injured in an ISIS IED and firearm ambush on buses transporting oil workers near Mouhasan, Deir Ezzor.

Civilian casualties of explosive weapon use in Syria in December 2022 saw a considerable decrease compared to November, when 73 incidents caused 175 reported civilian casualties (31 killed, 144 injured). In October, 74 incidents were recorded, which resulted in 91 civilian casualties (23 killed, 68 injured).

Sources:  SNHR, Crisis24, Associated Press, SOHR, Airwars, SOHR I, South Front, Airwars I, SOHR II, North Press, Airwars II, North Press I, Airwars III, ANF

Syria

February 2023

Syria

January 2023

Syria

November 2022

Casualties

In November 2022, there were 73 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria, 30 of which resulted in 175 civilian casualties, 31 of whom were killed and 144 injured. At least eight women and 14 children were reportedly among the civilian casualties. Civilians accounted for 54% of the total 327 casualties, as there were also 152 recorded armed-actor casualties, 90 of whom were killed and 62 injured.

The majority of civilian casualties, 94% (165), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 49% (85) occurred in encampments, 23% (40) in villages, 9% (15) in urban residential areas and 6% (10) in schools.

The regions which saw the highest levels of civilian casualties were Idlib (103 civilian casualties), Hasakah (44), and Aleppo (21).

The majority of civilian casualties, 47% (43), were reportedly caused by state use of explosive weapons, specifically Syrian forces (108 civilian casualties) and Turkey (50). Among non-state actors, the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) were reported to have caused ten civilian casualties in explosive weapons incidents.

The majority of civilian casualties, 71% (124), were caused by ground-launched weapons, specifically rockets (85), non-specific shelling (16) and artillery shells (15). Air-launched explosive weapons caused 23% (41) of civilian casualties, specifically airstrikes.

The highest casualty incident in Syria in November  occurred on 6November 2022 when 10 people were killed and 77 were injured in rocket shelling by Syrian forces, which reportedly included cluster bombs, on IDP camps near Idlib city.

The number of incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria in November 2022 saw a slight decrease compared to October, when 74 incidents were recorded. However, more civilian casualties were recorded in November, as 91 civilian casualties were recorded in October.

Sources: SOHR, Airwars, AP, SOHR, ANF, Airwars, ANHA, SOHR, ANF, NPA, Airwars, ANHA, ANF, ANHA, ANHA, ANHA, ANF, Airwars, Airwars, NPA, NPA, ANHA, ANHA, ANF, ANHA, SOHR, NPA, ANF, SOHR, ANHA, ANF, SOHR, ANHA, Airwars

Aid access

On 06 November 2022, Russian warplanes, aided by Syrian artillery, dropped cluster munitions on forests near four makeshift IDP camps located in close proximity to each other in Idlib governorate. 

Sources: Airwars, Human Rights Watch, New Age, Office of the High Commissioner For Human Rights, Reuters, Tages Schau, The New Arab, The New Humanitarian

Healthcare

In November 2022, there were two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting access to healthcare in Syria. 

On 20 November 2022, a male health worker was killed in a double-tap airstrike allegedly conducted by Turkish forces in Takl Bakl village, Hasakah governorate, Syria. He was on his way to treat those wounded from the first strike. At least 11 other civilians were killed in the attack. 

On 20 November 2022, a medical building being used as a COVID-19 centre was destroyed by a suspected airstrike by Turkish armed forces in Mistenur area, Hasakah governorate. 

Sources: Airwars I, Airwars II

Syria

October 2022

Casualties

In October 2022, there were 74 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria, 33 of which resulted in 91 civilian casualties, 23 of whom were killed and 68 injured. At least seven women and 12 children were reportedly among the civilian casualties. Civilians accounted for 35% of the total 263 casualties, as there were also 172 recorded armed-actor casualties, 88 of whom were killed and 84 injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 89% (81), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 27% (25) occurred in villages, 24% (22) in urban residential areas, 21% (19) in encampments, 7% (6) on roads, 4% (4) in other locations, 2% (2) in agricultural lands and public gatherings, respectively, and 1% (1) in schools.

The regions in which civilian casualties were reported in Syria were Aleppo (46 civilian casualties), Idlib (13), Hasakah (11), Daraa (8), Latakia (5), Homs (4), Hama (2), and Deir Ezzor (2).

The majority of civilian casualties, 47% (43), were reportedly caused by non-state actors' use of explosive weapons, specifically the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) (22 civilian casualties), ISIS (9), the Manbij Military Council (9), the Syrian National Army (1), and Hayat Tahrir al-Sham (1). Unknown non-state actors caused one civilian casualty. State actors were the reported perpetrators in the case of 45% (41) of civilian casualties, specifically Syria (25 civilian casualties), Turkey (12), and Syria and Russia (1). Unknown state actors caused one civilian casualty. Actors of unknown name and status caused 8% (7) of civilian casualties.

The majority of civilian casualties, 69% (63), were caused by ground-launched weapons, specifically non-specific shelling (30), combined ground-launched weapons (11), mortars (9), artillery shelling (6), grenades (4), and rockets (3). Directly-emplaced explosive weapons caused 18% (16) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific IEDs (10) and landmines (6). Air-launched explosive weapons and combined explosive weapons caused 1% (1) of civilian casualties respectively. 

The number of incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria in October saw an increase from September, in which 61 incidents were recorded. However, more civilian casualties, 110, were recorded in September (30 killed and80 injured). In August, there were 70 reported incidents of explosive violence in Syria, which caused 170 civilian casualties (37 killed and 133 injured). 

Sources: SOHR, Airwars, SOHR I, North Press, ANHA, North Press II, SOHR II, SOHR III, ANF, ANHA I, North Press III, SOHR IV, North Press IV, ANF I, SOHR V, North Press V, Airwars I, SOHR VI, ANHA IIAirwars II

 

Aid access

There were two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting aid access in Syria recorded in October. 

On 13 October 2022, Kuwait Al Rahma IDP camp in Aleppo governorate was reportedly shelled by the Syrian Democratic Forces, killing at least one IDP and injuring 14 others. On 29 October 2022, the camp was shelled again by the same forces using a rocket launcher. A woman was killed and her husband and child were injured.  

Sources: Airwars, SNHR, The New Arab

Education

There was one incident affecting access to education in Syria recorded in October. 

On 13 October 2022, an artillery shell fired by Ahrar al-Sham and al-Hamza armed groups landed in front of the Special Education School in Aleppo governorate, killing a teacher and damaging the building. 

Source: SNHR

Syria

September 2022

Casualties

In September 2022, there were 61 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria, 30 of which resulted in 110 civilian casualties, of whom 30 were killed and 80 injured. At least 12 women and 24 children were reportedly among the civilian casualties. Civilians accounted for 45% of the total 245 casualties, as there were also 135 recorded armed-actor casualties, 106 of whom were killed and 29 injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 86% (95), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 47% (52) occurred in villages, 14% (15) in urban residential areas, 7% (8) in transport-related infrastructure, 5% (6) on public transport, 5% (5) in encampments, 4% (4) in markets, 4% (4) in armed bases, and 1% (1) in commercial premises.

The regions in which civilian casualties were reported in Syria were Idlib (37 civilian casualties), Aleppo (32), Hasakah (14), Raqqa (11), Lattakia (8), Daraa (6), Quneitra (1), and Hama (1).

The majority of civilian casualties, 66% (73) were reportedly caused by state actors' use of explosive weapons, specifically Russia (32), Turkey (21), Israel (8), and Syria (5). Unknown state actors caused seven civilian casualties. Non-state actors were the reported perpetrators of 21% (23) of civilian casualties, specifically unknown non-state actors (21), ISIS (1), and Turkish-backed militants (1). Actors of unknown name and status caused 13% (14) of civilian casualties.

The majority of civilian casualties, 46% (51), were caused by air-launched weapons, specifically air strikes (50) and missiles (1). Ground-launched explosive weapons caused 27% (30) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific shelling (13), grenades (12), and artillery shelling (5). Directly-emplaced weapons caused 22% (24) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific IEDs (17), landmines (6), and roadside bombs (1). 

The highest casualty incident occurred on 08 September 2022, when seven civilians, including two children, were killed and 15 injured in Russian air strikes on a stonemason’s workshop and nearby homes in Hafserja village, Idlib. 

The number of incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria in September saw a decrease from August, in which 70 incidents and 170 civilian casualties were recorded (37 killed and 133 injured). In July, there were 71 reported incidents of explosive violence in Syria, which caused 158 civilian casualties (33 killed and 125 injured). 

Sources: SOHR, Airwars, SNRH, SOHR I, Airwars I, ANF, North Press, ANF I, Airwars II, SOHR II, SOHR III, North Press I, ANHA, SOHR IV, SOHR V, North Press II, Airwars III, North Press III, North Press IV, SOHR VI, SOHR VII, North Press V, SOHR VIII, SOHR IX, Kurdistan24, ANF II, SOHR X, ANHA I, ANF III, North Press VI

Aid access

Casualties

On 27 September 2022, shrapnel from four Russian air raids ripped through tents at a cluster of camps for internationally displaced persons in Idlib governorate, Syria, injuring women and children sheltering in them. Camp residents were forced to flee and take shelter under trees or behind rocks. 

Source: The New Arab

 

Syria

August 2022

Casualties

In August 2022, there were 70 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria, 35 which resulted in 170 civilian casualties, of whom 37 were killed and 133 injured. At least 14 women and 47 children were reportedly among the civilian casualties. Civilians accounted for 59% of the total 290 casualties, as there were also 120 recorded armed-actor casualties, 64 of whom were killed and 56 injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 99% (163), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 37% (63) occurred in markets, 28% (47) in urban residential areas, 10% (17) in villages, 9% (15) in schools, 5% (9) in town centres, 4% (7) on agricultural lands, and 3% (5) across multiple urban areas.

The regions in which civilian casualties were reported in Syria were Aleppo (85 civilian casualties), Hasakah (38), Daraa (15), Hama (14), Idlib (12), Suweida (3), Quneitra (2), and Raqqa (1).

The majority of civilian casualties, 59% (101), were caused by ground-launched weapons,  specifically rockets (52), non-specific shelling (34), mortars (5), artillery shells (3), grenades (3), tank shells (2), combined ground-launched weapons (1), and missiles (1). Air-launched explosive weapons caused 32% (54) of civilian casualties, specifically airstrikes. Directly-emplaced weapons caused 6% (10) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific IEDs. Combined launch methods caused 6% (9) of civilian casualties, and weapons of unclear launch method caused 3% (5) of civilian casualties. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 92% (156) were caused by state actors' use of explosive weapons, specifically Syria (70), Turkey (66), Israel (16), and Russia (2). Unknown state actors caused two civilian casualties. Non-state actors were the reported perpetrators of 6% (11) of civilian casualties, specifically unknown non-state actors (5), ISIS (5), and Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) (1). Actors of unknown name and status caused 2% (3) of civilian casualties.

The highest casualty incident occurred on 19 August 2022, when 17 civilians, including six children, were killed and 35 injured in a Syrian ground-launched rocket strike on an outdoor market in Al Bab, Aleppo. 

The number of incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria in August remained consistent with levels seen in July, in which 71 incidents and 158 civilian casualties were recorded (33 killed and 125 injured). Civilian casualties have continued to increase from June 2022, when there were 66 reported incidents of explosive violence in Syria, which caused 156 civilian casualties (29 killed and 127 injured). 

Sources: SOHR, Reuters, MEE, North Press, SOHR II, ANHA, North Press II, ANHA II, SOHR III, SOHR IV, ANHA III, Airwars, North Press III, ANHA IV, Airwars II, ANHA V, SOHR V, Airwars III, SOHR VI, North Press IV, ANHA VI, ANHA VII, SOHR VII, Airwars IV, ANHA VIII, SOHR VIII, ANHA IX, Airwars V, Airwars VI, SOHR IX, North Press V, Airwars VII, SOHR X, North Press VI, SOHR XI, North Press VII, ANHA X, North Press VII, SOHR XII, ANHA XI, Airwars VIII, SOHR XIII, Airwars IX, ANHA XII, ANHA XIII, SOHR XIV, Airwars X, SOHR XV, ANHA XIV, Airwars XI, Airwars XII

Education

Two incidents affecting access to education were recorded in Syria in August 2022. 

On 03 August 2022, al Andalus Elementary School in Aleppo governorate, Syria, was damaged by shells reportedly fired from a Syrian Defense Forces (SDF) position, and on 19 August 2022, an education facility was damaged and four school girls killed in a Turkish drone strike in Aleppo governorate.  

Source: Airwars, SNHR 

Healthcare

On 09 August 2022, a COVID-19 hospital in Al Hasakah governorate funded by the United Nations was hit by a Turkish drone strike, killing four people. 

Source: ACLED

Syria

July 2022

Casualties

In July 2022, there were 71 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria, 39 which resulted in 158 civilian casualties, of whom 33 were killed and 125 injured, including at least 21 women and 29 children. Civilians accounted for 59% of the total 268 casualties, as there were also 110 recorded armed-actor casualties, 45 of whom were killed and 65 injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 98% (155), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 46% (72) occurred in villages, 21% (33) in urban residential areas, 9% (15) in places of worship, 5% (8) in town centers, 5% (8) in encampments, 4% (7) on agricultural lands, 3% (5) in markets, 2% (3) in police stations, and 1% (2) in commercial premises and in areas where multiple urban locations were impacted, respectively. Of the remaining civilian casualties, 2% (3) occurred in armed bases.  

The regions in which civilian casualties were reported in Syria were Aleppo (42 civilian casualties), Idlib (41), Hasakah (26), Hama (25), Daraa (11), Raqqa (9), Tartus (2), and Deir Ezzor (2).

The majority of civilian casualties, 49% (77), were caused by ground-launched weapons,  specifically shelling (34), artillery shells (17), missiles (11), rockets (10), mortars (4), and grenades (1). Air-launched explosive weapons caused 18% (29) of civilian casualties, specifically missiles (25), air strikes (2), and air-dropped bombs (2). Directly-emplaced weapons caused 13% (21) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific IEDs (17), and landmines (4). Combined launch methods caused 6% (9) of civilian casualties. Weapons of unclear launch method caused 14% (22) of civilian casualties. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 64% (101) were caused by state actors' use of explosive weapons, specifically Turkey (46 civilian casualties), Russia (25), Syria (25), and Israel (2). Unknown state actors caused three civilian casualties. Non-state actors were the reported perpetrators of 21% (44) of civilian casualties, specifically unknown non-state actors (29 civilian casualties), the Syrian opposition (7), the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) (6), and ISIS (2). Actors of unknown name and status caused 8% (13) of civilian casualties.

The highest casualty incident occurred on 22 July 2022, when eight civilians were killed, including four children, and 17 more were injured, including eight children and one woman, in a Russian air-launched missile strike on Jadida village, Idlib. 

The number of incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria in July saw an increase from June, in which 66 incidents and 156 civilian casualties were recorded (29 killed, 127 injured). Levels have continued to rise from May 2022, when there were 82 reported incidents of explosive violence in Syria, which caused 101 civilian casualties (30 killed and 71 injured). 

Sources: SOHR, ANHA, Airwars, Rudaw, SOHR II, Medya, SOHR III, Airwars II, ANHA II, ANHA III, SOHR IV, ANHA IV, Airwars III, North Press, SOHR V, Airwars IV, SOHR VINorth Press II, ANHA V, SOHR VII, Airwars V, North Press III, Airwars VI, SOHR VIII, North Press IV, North Press V, SOHR IX, ANHA VI, Airwars VII, Airwars VIII, Middle East Eye, Islamic Relief, Airwars

Syria

June 2022

Casualties

In June 2022, there were 66 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria which resulted in 156 civilian casualties, of whom 29 were killed and 127 injured, including at least eight women and 41 children. Civilians accounted for 62% of the total 252 casualties, as there were also 96 recorded armed-actor casualties, 27 of whom were killed and 69 injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 94% (146), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 29% (45) occurred on roads, 25% (39) in villages, 17% (26) in urban residential areas, 9% (14) on agricultural land, 5% (8) in locations where multiple urban areas were damaged, 4% (6) in humanitarian infrastructure, 3% (4) in town centres, 1% (2) in hotels, and <1% (1) in transport related infrastructure and commercial premises respectively. The remaining 6% (10) of civilian casualties occurred on unpopulated agricultural land (5), roads (2), and other unpopulated areas (3). 

The regions in which civilian casualties were reported in Syria were Daraa (47 civilian casualties), Aleppo (33), Raqqa (22), Hasakah (12), Deir Ezzor (11), Homs (10), Idlib (8), Hama (7), Rif Dimashq (5), and Damascus (1).

The majority of civilian casualties, 51% (80), were caused by directly-emplaced weapons,  specifically landmines (45 civilian casualties), unexploded ordnance (30), non-specific IEDs (3), and car bombs (2). Ground-launched weapons caused 22% (34) of civilian casualties, specifically rockets (13 civilian casualties), shelling (9), grenades (5), missiles (4), artillery (2), and mortars (1). Air-launched explosive weapons caused 8% (12) of civilian casualties, specifically air strikes (10) and air-dropped bombs (2). Weapons of unclear launch method caused 19% (30) of civilian casualties. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 68% (107) were caused by actors of unknown name and status. State actors caused 17% (27) of civilian casualties, in particular Turkey (25 civilian casualties), Israel (1), and Syria (1). Non-state actors caused 14% of civilian casualties.

The highest casualty incident occurred on 11 June 2022, when 11 agricultural labourers, including five children and three women, were killed, and 34 were injured in a mine explosion in Daraa, as they were traveling to cultivate their fields. 

The number of incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria in June saw a decrease from May, in which 82  incidents were recorded. However, those incidents caused 101 civilian casualties (30 killed and 71 injured).  Levels have continued to rise from April 2022, when there were 57 reported incidents of explosive violence in Syria, which caused 67 civilian casualties (25 killed and 42 injured). 

Sources: SOHR, AFP, Euro-Med HRM, ANHA I, SOHR II, Airwars II, ANHA II, ANHA III, Airwars II, SOHR III, ANHA IV, SOHR IV, ANHA V, Airwars III, ANHA VI, SOHR V, Airwars IV, SOHR VI, SOHR VII, Airwars V, ANHA VII, SOHR VIII, Airwars VI, North Press Syria, Airwars VII, SOHR IX, SNHR, Airwars VIII, ANHA VIII, SOHR X, Airwars IX

Aid access

In June 2022, there were two recorded incidents of explosive weapon use affecting aid access in Syria. 

On 01 June 2022, dozens of tents at a camp for internally displaced persons near Babsqa village, Idlib governorate in Syria, were damaged by rockets fired by unidentified perpetrators at a nearby military position occupied by Failaq al Sham militants. On 15 June 2022, the director of the Turkish non-governmental organisation Humanitarian Relief Association was killed in a targeted car explosion in Al-Bab city as the organization was assisting the local community. 

Sources: OCHA, SOHR, SNHR, World Vision

Healthcare

In June 2022, there were two recorded incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of healthcare in Syria. 

On 01 June 2022, a Turkish drone strike damaged a doctor's clinic in Tel Rifat town, Aleppo governorate, causing material damage, and on 02 June 2022, alleged Turkish shelling hit a local hospital and residential buildings in Zarkan district, Hasakah governorate. 

Sources: AirwarsLiveuamap

Syria

May 2022

Casualties

In May 2022, there were 82 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria which resulted in 101 civilian casualties, of whom 30 were killed and 71 injured. There were at least 37 children and 12 women among the civilian casualties. Civilians accounted for 44% of the total 230 casualties, as there were also 129 recorded armed-actor casualties, 53 of whom were killed and 76 injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 62% (63), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 31% (35) occurred in villages, 21% (23) in urban residential areas, 2% (2) in commercial premises, and 2% (2) at public gatherings. 

The regions in which civilian casualties were reported in Syria were Hama (28 civilian casualties), Aleppo (28), Rif Dimashq (9), Idlib (4), Raqqa (9), Suweida (8), Daraa (7), Idlib (6), Homs (6), Hasakah (4), Quneitra (2), and Deir Ezzor (1).

The majority of civilian casualties, 47% (47), were caused by directly-emplaced weapons. Specifically, improvised explosive devices were the cause of 26% (26) of civilian casualties, unexploded ordnance caused 14% (14) of civilian casualties, and mines caused 7% (7) of civilian casualties. Ground-launched weapons caused 32% (32) of civilian casualties. Specifically, shelling and artillery shells caused 16% (16) of civilian casualties, and grenades 15% (15). Air-launched explosive weapons, specifically air strikes, caused 14% (14) of civilian casualties. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 44% (44), were caused by non-state actors. State actors caused 31% (31) of civilian casualties. Specifically, Turkish state forces were the reported perpetrator in the case of 19% (19) of civilian casualties, Israel of 8% (8), Syria of 2% (2), and Russia of 1% (1). Unknown state actors caused 1% (1) of civilian casualties in May. 

The highest casualty incident occurred on 13 May 2022, when one civilian was killed and seven injured, including one child, in an alleged Israeli air strike on Hama. Six soldiers were killed and seven injured in the attack. 

The number of incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria in May saw a rise from April, in which 57 incidents were recorded and 67 civilian casualties (25 killed and 42 injured). Levels have continued to rise from March 2022, when there were 48 reported incidents of explosive violence in Syria, which caused 80 civilian casualties (30 killed and 50 injured). 

Sources: SOHR I, SOHR II, ANHA I, Airwars I, Airwars II, ANHA II, SOHR III, ANHA III, ANHA IV, ANHA V, Airwars III, SOHR IV, SOHR V, Airwars IV, ANHA VI, NPA, ANHA VII, Airwars V, ANHA VIII, ANHA IX, SOHR VI, Airwars VI, SOHR VII, SOHR VIII, ANHA X, ANHA XI, SOHR IX, ANHA XII, SOHR X, Airwars VII

Syria

April 2022

Casualties

In April 2022, there were 38 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria, which resulted in 39 civilian casualties, of whom 11 were killed and 28 injured. There were at least five children and six women among the civilian casualties. Civilians accounted for 33% of the total 119 casualties, as there were also 80 recorded armed-actor casualties, 34 of whom were killed and 46 injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 74% (29), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 46% (18) occurred in villages, 15% (6) in entertainment venues, 8% (3) in urban residential areas, 5% (2) in locations in which the detonation of an explosive weapon affects multiple types of spaces within an urban environment, and 3% (1) on a road. The remaining 23% (9) of civilian casualties occurred in other or unknown locations. 

The regions in which civilian casualties were reported in Syria were Aleppo (20 civilian casualties), Hasakah (7), Deir Ezzor (5), Idlib (4), Raqqa (2), and Damascus (1).

The majority of civilian casualties, 67% (26), were caused by ground-launched weapons, specifically shelling, 49% (19), and artillery shells, 18% (7). Directly-emplaced weapons were the cause of 26% (10) of civilian casualties. Specifically, improvised explosive devices were the cause of 23% (9) of civilian casualties, and landmines caused 3% (1) of civilian casualties. Air-launched explosive weapons, specifically air-dropped bombs, caused 8% (3) of civilian casualties. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 38% (15), were caused by groups of unknown status and name. State actors caused 36% (14) of civilian casualties. Specifically, Turkish state forces were the reported perpetrator in the case of 26% (10) of civilian casualties, and Syrian state forces in the case of 10% (4) of civilian casualties. Non-state actors’ use of explosive weapons caused 26% (10) of civilian casualties. Specifically, ISIS were the reported perpetrator in the case of 13% (5) of civilian casualties, and unknown non-state forces in the case of 13% (5) of civilian casualties. 

The number of incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria in April saw a rise from March, in which 25 incidents were recorded and 35 civilian casualties (11 killed and 24 injured). In February 2022, there 54 reported incidents of explosive violence in Syria, which caused 133 civilian casualties (45 killed and 88 injured). 

Sources: SOHR I, Kurdistan24, SOHR II, SOHR III, SouthFront, SOHR IV, SOHR V, SOHR VI, ANHA, Airwars I, Airwars II, SOHR VII, Daily Sabah, AFP, SOHR VIII

Aid access

On 09 April 2022, two armed actors on a motorcycle opened fire on a United Nations Relief a and Works Agency healthcare centre at the Daraa Refugee Camp in Dera'a City in Southern Syria, and threw an explosive device inside the compound, causing material damage. 

Source: Palestinian Return Centre

Education

On 04 April 2022, shelling by Syrian forces hit 50 metres away from the Al-Amal School in Idlib governorate in Syria, killing four boys who were on their way to school. 

Sources: AP and Save the Children

Syria

March 2022

Casualties

In March 2022, there were 25 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria, 14 of which caused 35 civilian casualties, 11 of whom were killed and 24 injured. Civilian casualties reportedly included 10 children. Civilians accounted for 50% of the total 78 casualties of explosive weapons, as there were also 43 armed-actor casualties, 11 of whom were killed and 32 injured. 

When explosive weapon use was recorded in populated areas in Syria, 65% (24) of those killed and injured were civilians. Of the civilian casualties, 69% (24) occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 34% (12) occurred in villages, 20% (7) in a location in which the detonation of an explosive weapon affects multiple types of spaces within an urban environment, 14% (5) on roads, 11% (4) in unspecified locations, 9% (3) in encampments, 6% (2) in urban residential areas, and 6% (2) on agricultural land. 

Civilian casualties were recorded in eight governorates across Syria, namely Aleppo (12), Daraa (8), Raqqa (7), Hasakah (4), Damascus (2) and Idlib (2).

The use of ground-launched weapons caused 57% of the total civilian casualties. Specifically, these weapons included rockets (9 civilian casualties), shelling (5), a rocket propelled grenade (3), a grenade (2), and a mortar (1). Directly-emplaced weapons caused 31% (11) of the total civilian casualties. Specifically, these weapons included improvised esplosive devices (4), roadside bombs (5), and landmines (2). Air-launched weapons were the cause of 11% (4) of civilian casualties, specifically an airstrike (2) and an air-launched missile (11).

Non-state actors were reportedly responsible for 37% (13) of civilian casualties. The Islamic State was reportedly the perpetrator in the case of three civilian casualties, and unknown non-state actors the reported perpetrator in the case of 10 civilian casualties. The perpetrator status in the case of 40% (14) of civilian casualties was recorded as unknown, and state actors were reportedly responsible for 23% (8) of civilian casualties, primarily Turkish armed forces (4), Syrian state forces (2), and Israeli state forces (2).

The highest casualty incident in Syria in March 2022 occurred on 23 March, when one civilian was killed and seven injured, including a child, in a rocket strike on Azaz, Aleppo, by unknown perpetrators. 

Source: SOHR, Airwars, Daily Sabah, SOHR II, SO

Syria

February 2022

Casualties

In February 2022, there were 58 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria. Across 31 of these incidents, 142 civilian casualties were recorded, 50 of whom were killed and 92 injured. Civilian casualties reportedly included 28 children and 16 women. Civilians accounted for 55% of the total 260 casualties of explosive weapons, as there were also 118 armed-actor casualties of explosive weapons, 44 of whom were killed and 74 injured. 

When explosive weapon use was recorded in populated areas in Syria, 85% (132) of those killed and injured were civilians. Of the civilian casualties, 93% (132) occurred in populated areas, while 7% (10) were recorded in non-populated areas.

Specifically, 40% (57) occurred in a location in which the detonation of an explosive weapon affects multiple types of spaces within an urban environment, 24% (34) in urban residential areas, 15% (21) in villages, 3% (4) on roads, 3% (4) in an entertainment venue, 2% (3) in transport related infrastructure, and >1% (1) at a hospital.

Civilian casualties were recorded in eight governorates across Syria, namely Aleppo (70), Idlib (33), Hasakah (24), Deir Ezzor (4), Hama (4), Rif Damashq (3), Raqqa (2), and Derik (2).

The use of ground-launched weapons caused 65% of the total civilian casualties. Specifically, these weapons included shelling (42 civilian casualties), artillery shells (39), missiles (5), rockets (4), and mortars (2). Directly-emplaced weapons caused 20% (29) of the total civilian casualties. Specifically, these weapons included IEDs (53), car bombs (37), roadside bombs (22), and landmines (10). Air-launched weapons were the cause of 15% (21) of civilian casualties, specifically airstrikes (10) and air-dropped bombs (11).

State actors were reportedly responsible for 38% (54) of civilian casualties, primarily Turkish armed forces (43) and Syrian state forces (20). Non-state actors were reportedly responsible for 15% (22) of civilian casualties, with the Islamic State the perpetrator in the case of 16 civilian casualties, Syrian factions and the People’s Protection Units (YPG) both in the case of one civilian casualty, respectively. The perpetrator status in the case of 46% (66) of civilian casualties was recorded as unknown.

The incident with the highest number of civilians killed and injured in Syria this month took place on 2 February 2022, when five civilians were killed and 29 others injured in artillery shelling by unknown perpetrators in al-Bab, Aleppo. Three armed-actors were also killed in the incident.

The number of civilian casualties in Syria in February 2022 has fallen by 7% from January 2022, from 152 civilians to 142. This is the first recorded decline of civilian casualties since November 2021. Armed-actor casualties, on the other hand, increased by 31%, from 90 in January to 118 in February.

Source: The New Arab, Republic World, Airwars I, Airwars II, Airwars III, SOHR I, SOHR II, SOHR III, SOHR IV, SOHR V, SOHR VI, SOHR VII, SOHR VIII, Prensa Latina, Rudaw, SOHR IX, SOHR X, SOHR XI, SOHR XII, SOHR XIII, SOHR XIV, SOHR XV, SOHR XVI, ANHA, ANHA II

Aid access

On 27 February 2022, Kurdish heavy artillery shells hit a local hospital in Azaz city in Aleppo governorate, Syria, reportedly injuring a health worker and a patient.

Source: Airwars

Syria

January 2022

Casualties

In January 2022, there were 34 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria. Across 20 of these incidents, 152 civilian casualties were recorded (reportedly including 25 children, 42 women, and 20 men), 60 of whom were killed and 92 injured. Civilians accounted for 63% of the total 242 casualties of explosive weapons, as there were also 90 armed-actor casualties of explosive weapons, 33 of whom were killed and 57 injured. 

When explosive weapon use was recorded in populated areas in Syria, 97% (146) of those killed and injured were civilians. Of the civilian casualties, 96% (146) occurred in populated areas, while 4% (6) were recorded in non-populated areas.

Specifically, 40% (61) of civilian casualties took place in urban residential areas, 26% (40) in a location in which the detonation of an explosive weapon affects multiple types of spaces within an urban environment, 20% (31) in villages, 4% (6) in unreported locations, 3% (5) on agricultural land, 3% (4) on commercial premises, 2% (3) in markets, and >1% in attacks on humanitarian infrastructure and public buildings, respectively. 

Civilian casualties were recorded in six governorates across Syria, namely Aleppo (67), Deir Ezzor (36), Idlib (21), Raqqa (13), Daraa (14), and Hasakah (1).

The use of ground-launched weapons caused 53% (81) of the total civilian casualties. Specifically, these weapons included rockets (53), shelling (25) and missiles (3). Air-launched explosive weapons, specifically airstrikes, were the recorded cause of 36% (55) of civilian casualties. Directly-emplaced weapons, such as IEDs and mines, caused 11% (18) of civilian casualties. These weapons include non-specific IEDs (15 civilian casusalties), car bombs (1), and landmines (2). 

State actors were reportedly responsible for 88% (133) of civilian casualties, primarily Syrian state forces (50), Turkish armed forces (28), Russia (19), and unknown state actors (36). Non-state actors were reportedly responsible for 11% of civilian casualties, with the Islamic State the perpetrator in the case of one civilian casualty, Kurdish forces for three, and unknown non-state actors in the case of 13 civilian casualties. The perpetrator status in the case of two civilian casualties was recorded as unknown.

The incident with the highest number of civilians killed and injured in Syria this month took place on 23 January 2022, when 36 civilians were killed, including 29 women and seven children, in state airstrikes by either Russian or Syrian forces in Khisham, Deir Ezzor. 

The number of civilian casualties in Syria in January 2022 has increased by 35%, a more substantial increase than recorded from November to December 2021 when civilian casualties rose by 10%, and after a significant decrease of 49% in the month of November 2021. Armed-actor casualties more than doubled in January from 38 in December 2021 to 90 last month. 

Source: SOHR I, SOHR II, SOHR III, SOHR IV, SOHR V, SOHR VI, SOHR VII

Syria

December 2021

Casualties

In December 2021, there were 38 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria. Across 26 of these incidents, there were 113 recorded civilian casualties (including 33 children), 45 of whom were killed and 68 injured. Civilians accounted for 75% of the total 151 casualties. There were 38 armed-actor casualties recorded, 24 of whom were killed and 14 injured. 

When explosive weapon use was recorded in populated areas in Syria, 92% (127) of those killed and injured were civilians. All but one civilian casualty took place in populated areas. Specifically, 36% (39) of civilian casualties took place in urban residential areas, 33% (38) in villages, 18% (20) on roads, 11% (12) on agricultural land, and the remaining 4% (4) of civilian casualties occurred at an encampment (2), a school (1), and a market (1).

Civilian casualties were recorded in eight governorates across Syria, namely Idlib (44 civilian casualties), Hasakah (31), Deir Ezzor (16), Aleppo (14), Daraa (4), Homs (2), Suweida (1), and Raqqa (1). 

The use of ground-launched weapons caused 46% (52) of the total civilian casualties. Specifically, these weapons included shelling (31 civilian casualties), rockets (15) and grenades (6). Air-launched explosive weapons, specifically airstrikes, were the recorded cause of 38% (43) of civilian casualties. Directly-emplaced weapons, such as IEDs and mines, caused 14% (18) of civilian casualties. These weapons include non-specific IEDs (15 civilian casusalties), car bombs (2), and landmines (1). 

State actors were reportedly responsible for 79% of civilian casualties, primarily Turkey (39 civilian casualties), Russia (25), Syria (13) and the US-led coalition (11). Non-state actors were reportedly responsible for 16% of civilian casualties, primarily the Islamic State (12 civilian casualties). The perpetrator status in the case of six civilian casualties was recorded as unknown.

The incident with the highest number of civilians killed and injured in Syria this month took place on 10 December 2021, when at least three civilians were killed and twelve injured in a Russian airstrike on an urban residential area of Yaaqubiyah, Jisr al-Shughur, Idlib. As many as eleven children were among the casualties.

The number of civilian casualties in Syria in December 2021 has increased by nearly 10% after a significant decrease of 49% in the month of November. Thus, civilian casualties in Syria remain among the lowest levels recorded in 2021. The number of total casualties in December (151) has fallen by 22% relative to November, as the lowest number of armed-actor casualties in 2021 was recorded this month (38). Idlib remains the most dangerous province in terms of the number of recorded civilian deaths and injuries from explosive weapons. Ground-launched weapons were again the cause of the highest proportion of civilian casualties in comparison to November 2021. December 2021 marks the sixth consecutive month in which State actors have caused over 60% of civilian casualties from explosive weapon use in Syria. 

Sources: SOHR, ReliefWeb, Airwars

Education

In December 2021, two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of education were recorded in Syria. A school was bombed by Syrian forces and a school child was injured in a grenade explosion in a school playground. 

On 13 December 2021, in Maarzaf village Idlib governorate, Syrian government forces bombed a school, and on 19 December 2021, in Homs city and governorate, a 14-year-old boy was injured when a grenade exploded in the playground at Ruqqaya School. 

Sources: Twitter and SOHR

Syria

November 2021

Casualties

In November 2021, there were 38 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria, 18 of which caused 103 civilian casualties (including 11 women and 24 children). Civilians accounted for 53% of all 194 casualties, 36 of whom were killed and 67 injured. There were an additional 91 armed-actor casualties, 41 of whom were injured and 50 killed. 

When explosive weapon use was recorded in populated areas in Syria, 82% (94) of those killed and injured were civilians. About 90% (94) of the total civilian casualties occurred in populated areas, while 10% (9) took place in areas not reported as populated. Specifically, 42% (43) of civilian casualties took place in multiple urban spaces (locations in which the detonation of an explosive weapon affects multiple types of spaces within an urban environment), 22% (23) occurred in villages, 16% (16) in urban residential areas (a residential area within a town or city, or a person’s home within a town), as well as nine civilian casualties on commercial premises, seven on roads, and two on agricultural land. There was no information on the specific location-type of three civilian casualties. 

Civilian casualties were recorded in five governorates across Syria, including Idlib (43), Aleppo (33), Homs (12), Daraa (12) and Hasakah (3). 

The use of ground-launched weapons caused 50% (51) of the total civilian casualties. Specifically, these weapons included: multiple types of ground-launched weapons (16 civilian casualties), mortars (12), artillery shelling (12), missiles (10) and grenades (1). Air-launched explosive weapons were the recorded cause of 34% (35) civilian casualties, specifically airstrikes (29 civilian casualties), air-dropped bombs (3) and air-launched missiles (3). Directly-emplaced weapons, such as IEDs and mines, caused 16% (17) civilian casualties, specifically car bombs (9 civilian casusalties), landmines (7), and non-specific IEDs (1). 

State actors were reportedly responsible for 65% of civilian casualties, primarily Russia (29) and  Syria (28), while non-state actors were responsible for 10 civilian casualties. The perpetrator status of 26 civilian casualties was recorded as unknown.

The incident with the highest number of civilians killed and injured in Syria this month took place on 11 November 2021, when five civilians were killed and ten injured in a Russian airstrike on a farm in Maarrat Misrin, Idlib. Three children were among those killed, and all five of those fatally injured were members of one family.

The number of civilian casualties in Syria in November 2021 decreased by 49% relative to figures recorded in October 2021. The number of civilian casualties in the country is among the lowest figures recorded in 2021, second only to April and May, in which 94 civilian casualties were recorded in both months, respectively. The number of armed-actor casualties (91) in November 2021 has also seen a substantial decrease of 37% when compared to October 2021 (144), and is at a year-round low, second only to July, in which 75 armed-actor casualties were recorded. Idlib remains the most dangerous province in terms of the number of recorded civilian deaths and injuries from explosive weapons, and ground-launched weapons were again the cause of the highest proportion of civilian casualties in comparison to October 2021. 

Sources: SOHR, TRT World, Airwars

Education

On 24 November 2021, in Kafr Ta’al village in the Aleppo governorate of Syria, a Syrian army artillery shell hit the Kafr Ta’al Primary School, damaging its building. No casualties were reported. 

Sources: SNHR

Syria

October 2021

Casualties

In October 2021, there were 47 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Syria, 28 of which caused 178 civilian casualties, including 34 fatalities and 144 injuries (17 casualties were women and 27 were children). Civilians accounted for 55% (178) of the total casualties (322), with an additional 144 armed-actors killed and injured. When casualties occured in populated areas, civilians made up 75% of those killed and injured. 

Of the civilian casualties, 46% (86) occured in villages, followed by areas where multiple urban spaces were affected (67), urban residential areas (11), roads (5), agricultural land (4), and encampments (1). The majority of civilian casualties occurred in Idlib governorate (108) and Aleppo (57). 

The use of ground-launched weapons, specifically artillery shelling, missiles, rockets and grenades caused the majority of civilian death and injury, resulting in 77% (138) of civilian casualties. Directly-emplaced weapons, specifically IEDs, car bombs and landmines, caused 15% (27) of civilian casualties. Air-launched weapons, specifically airstrikes, accounted for 7% (13) of civilian casualties.

State actors were reportedly responsible for 78% (139) of civilian casualties, primarily Syrian regime forces (124) and Turkey (14), while non-state actors were reportedly responsible for 20% (36) of civilian casualties. 

The highest casualty incident this month took place on 20 October 2021, when 13 civilians were killed (including four children), and at least 30 other civilians were injured by artillery shelling on a marketplace in the city of Ariha, in Idlib, by Syrian regime forces. The attack reportedly took place in response to an IED blast in Damascus on the same day, which targeted a bus carrying regime soldiers killing 14 and injuring 22.

Civilian casualties of explosive weapons in Syria have decreased by 16% from September to October 2021. The number of civilian fatalities fell by 46%, from 63 deaths in September to 34 in October. Idlib remained the most dangerous governorate in terms of explosive weapon harm, accounting for over half of all civilian casualties in both September and October 2021. 

Sources: Airwars, UN News, Guardian

Education

In October 2021, three incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of education were recorded in Ariha town in the Idlib governorate of Syria. In one instance, Syrian forces shelled residential areas killing four children (three boys and one girl) who were walking with their female teacher to school. In another instance, Syrian or Russian military air strikes landed near Abdul Hamid Ghnaimi School, damaging the building. In a separate instance, Syrian or Russian military air strikes landed near the city’s educational complex, damaging the building.

Sources: SNHR, Airwars, UNICEF, The New Arab IThe New Arab II and The New Arab III

Syria

September 2021

Casualties

In September 2021, there were 77 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria that resulted in 213 civilian casualties. Civilians accounted for 61% (213) of all casualties (347), including 63 deaths and 150 injuries. Of these, 58 were reportedly women and 19 children. The vast majority of civilian casualties, 96% (207), occurred in populated areas, such as urban residential locations (50%) and villages (22%). 

State actors were responsible for 69% (146) of civilian casualties in Syria in September, and non-state actors were responsible for 16% (53). Syrian regime forces were responsible for 82% (120) of the civilian casualties caused by state actors. The use of ground-launched weapons, specifically artillery shelling, rockets and grenades, caused the majority of civilian death and injury, resulting in 66% (140) of civilian casualties, including 47 deaths and 93 injuries, across 31 incidents. Directly-emplaced weapons, specifically IEDs, car bombs and landmines, caused 43% (49) of civilian casualties, including eight deaths and 27 injuries, across seven incidents. The average number of civilian casualties per incident involving directly-emplaced weapons (7) was higher than that of ground-launched weapons (4) in Syria in September 2021. Air-launched weapons, specifically airstrikes, accounted for 11% (24) of civilian casualties, including eight deaths and 16 injuries, across nine incidents. All nine airstrikes that caused civilian casualties took place in populated areas and were perpetrated by state actors, specifically Russia and Turkey. All Russian airstrikes were located in Idlib province and caused 19 civilian casualties, 11 of whom were children. 

The highest casualty incident this month took place on 7 September, when four civilians were killed, including one child, one woman and two men, and 15 others injured by artillery shelling on residential neighbourhood al-Dabbit in Idlib city, Idlib, by Syrian regime forces. 

Overall, civilian casualties from explosive weapon use in Syria have declined slightly from August to September 2021, with a 3% reduction in the number of civilian casualties and 14% fewer civilian fatalities. However, there was a significant increase in the concentration of civilian casualties and incidents of explosive weapon use in Idlib province, Syria. It was the most dangerous province for civilians this month, accounting for 55% (118) of all civilian casualties and 44% (34) of all incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria. This was followed by Aleppo province, where 24% (51) of civilian casualties occured, and 21% (16) of incidents. In Aleppo, civilian casualties decreased by 35% from August to September, and in Daraa, the second worst-affected province for civilian casualties in August 2021, civilian casualties dropped by 83%, from 42 to 7. 

Sources: Syrian Observatory of Human Rights, Airwars

Healthcare

In September 2021, two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting healthcare were recorded in Idlib governorate, Syria. In one instance, ground-launched mortar shelling by either Syrian or Russian forces severely damaged a medical centre and medical equipment. In another instance, Russian shelling killed a doctor and his 12-year-old son. 

Sources: Airwars, Dr. Zaher Sahloul, SNHR 

Syria

August 2021

In August 2021, there were 76 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria, and 219 civilian casualties. 73 of these casualties were killed and 146 were injured. 23 were women and 52 casualties were reportedly children. Civilians accounted for 57% of the total casualties (381) in August 2021. Ground launched weapons, such as artillery shelling, mortars, rockets, and grenades, accounted for the majority of incidents and civilian casualties, at 53 of the 76 incidents and 87% (191) of the civilian casualties. There were 19 incidents involving use of directly emplaced weapons, predominantly IEDs as well as mines, causing 28 civilian casualties. There were two recorded incidents of the use of air-launched weapons, which caused no civilian casualties but 24 armed-actor casualties. 64% (140) of the civilian casualties in August were caused by State actors, and of these, 80% (112) of the civilian casualties were caused by the Syrian regime. All 219 civilian deaths and injuries took place in populated areas. The locations with the highest numbers of civilian casualties were villages (85) and urban residential areas (82). The highest number of civilian casualties took place in Aleppo (79), where 14 civilians were killed and 65 injured, and 22 of the casualties were children. The next most dangerous province for civilians was Daraa, where a new and prolonged offensive was launched by Syrian regime forces, and 42 civilians were killed or injured in the province. In Idlib, 42 civilian casualties also occurred. 

The highest casualty incident for civilians in August took place on 6 August in Bab, Aleppo, when 18 civilians, including four children and three women, were injured by Syrian regime shelling on an urban residential area. Civilian casualties in Aleppo nearly doubled, from 41 in July to 79 in August, as in Daraa, from 26 in July to 42 in August. Civilian casualties in Idlib decreased significantly, from 137 in July to 42 in August, as the focus of the Syrian regime offensives shifted to Daraa. The number of civilian casualties in the country as a whole decreased slightly, from 235 in July to 219 in August, while armed-actor casualties more than doubled, from 75 in July to 162 in August. The proportion of civilian casualties to total casualties from July to August has decreased, from 75% in July to 57% in August. Sources: Syrian Observatory of Human Rights, Daily Sabah

Education

In August 2021 in Syria, two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of education were recorded. A school in Aleppo governorate and another in Daraa were damaged by ground-launched explosive weapons. Sources: SNHR I and SNHR II

Healthcare

On 30 August 2021, in Dara’a governorate of Syria, the Al Shifa Hospital, the National Hospital and a school were hit by mortars, causing minor structural damage. Source: OCHA Syria

Syria

July 2021

In July 2021, there were 73 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria, which caused 236 civilian casualties. 70 of these casualties were killed and 166 were injured. 31 were women and 77 casualties were reportedly children. Ground-launched weapons, such as artillery shelling, mortars, rockets, and grenades, accounted for the majority of incidents and civilian casualties, at 51 of the 73 incidents and 86% (206) of civilian casualties. There were 12 incidents involving use of directly emplaced weapons, predominantly IEDs as well as mines, causing 15 civilian casualties. There were 10 recorded incidents of the use of air-launched weapons, seven of which were airstrikes which caused 11 civilian casualties. All 11 civilian casualties of airstrikes were caused by Russian and Syrian airstrikes in populated areas in Idlib. 61% (126) of the civilian casualties caused by ground launched weapons took place in Idlib. 51 civilians in Idlib were killed or injured between the 15th and 17th of July by state rocket attacks on villages. 10 of the 51 civilian casualties were women and 18 were reportedly children.

The highest casualty incident for civilians in July took place on 17 July when eight civilians, seven from one family, were killed, including four women and four children, and nine others injured, including two women and three children, in a state perpetrated rocket strike on a village in Jabal al-Zawiya. 57 civilians were injured or killed by Syrian state ground launched weapons in Jabal al-Zawiya in July. As in June, Aleppo and Idlib provinces remain the most dangerous areas for civilians, combined accounting for 75% (178) of the total civilian casualties (236). The number of civilian casualties in Syria in July has increased by 11%, and the proportion of civilian casualties to total casualties has increased notably, from 57% in June to 75% in July. Sources: Syrian Network for Human Rights, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.

Education

In July 2021 in Syria, two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of education were recorded. Two schools in Idlib governorate were damaged by artillery shells fired by Syrian forces. In 2021 so far, four incidents where explosive weapons impacting education services in Syria have been reported. Sources: Airwars, SNHR I and SNHR II.

Healthcare

In July 2021 in Syria, four incidents of explosive weapon use affecting health services were recorded. Emergency responders and a vaccination worker were killed and an ambulance, health office and medical equipment were damaged by air-and ground- launched explosive weapons. In 2021 so far, health services in Syria have been impacted by explosive weapons on eight occasions. Sources: Airwars I, Airwars II, Airwars III and SNHR I, SNHR II, SNHR III and Twitter.

Syria

June 2021

In June 2021, there were 78 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria, resulting in 211 civilian casualties. 58 were killed, 153 injured, and 33 of these casualties were reportedly children. Ground-launched weapons, such as artillery shelling, mortars, rockets, and grenades accounted for 34 of the 78 incidents and 134 civilian casualties. There were 35 incidents of use of directly emplaced weapons, predominantly IEDs but also mines, causing 57 civilian casualties. There were eight recorded incidents involving use of air-launched weapons, two by the Israeli air force and two by the United States air force, and one confirmed Russian airstrike. One airstrike by the United States caused four civilian casualties. The Syrian state was responsible for at least 19 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use and 53 civilian casualties. 62% (48) of incidents took place in populated areas, where 92% (194) of the total civilian casualties occured. The worst incident this month occured on 12 June when al-Shifaa hospital in rebel-held city Afrin, Aleppo, was shelled by artillery fire originating in an area of northern Aleppo where militias loyal to the Syrian regime are deployed. 17 civilians were killed by the shelling on al- Shifaa hospital, and 23 were injured. Casualties included a number of healthcare workers, women, and children. Aleppo and Idlib provinces remain the most dangerous areas for civilians, combined accounting for 80% (168) of the total civilian casualties (211). The number of civilian casualties in Syria in June has more than doubled that of May, and the proportion of civilian casualties to total casualties has increased to 57% in June, from 44% in May. Sources: Guardian, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Reuters, Al Jazeera

Aid access

In June 2021 in Syria, two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting aid access were recorded in Hama and Idlib governorates. Ground launched shelling killed a Syrian volunteer paramedic, destroyed an aid centre, and damaged an IDP camp. Sources: The New Arab, SNHR and The White Helmets

 

Education

In June 2021 in Syria, one incident of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of education was recorded. Ground launched shelling damaged a makeshift school inside an IDP camp in Idlib governorate. Source: SNHR.

Healthcare

In June 2021 in Syria, three incidents of explosive weapon use affecting health services were recorded. Two health workers were killed, and a hospital and aid centre destroyed by ground launched shelling and air launched missiles. Sources: SAMS USA, SNHR, The New Arab I, The White Helmets, UN News and UPI.

Syria

May 2021

There were 49 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Syria, which caused 94 civilian casualties. 25 of these casualties were killed, and 17 casualties were reportedly children. The use of IEDs and mines caused 53 of the civilian casualties, while 29 were the result of air-launched weapons, and 12 were caused by ground-launched weapons (shelling, missiles, and rockets). The worst incident took place on 3 May, when an airstrike hit a weapons depot near the Al-Furousiya camp for the displaced. Four civilians were killed, including two children, and 11 others were wounded, including five children. The number of casualties and patterns of explosive weapon use recorded in May is very similar to April, with civilians accounting for just under half of the total casualties, primarily from the use of directly emplaced weapons. Aleppo and Idlib provinces remain the most dangerous areas for civilians, accounting for 60 of the 94 civilian casualties, as well as the highest rates of armed-actor casualties. Sources: Airwars, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights