The Explosive Weapons Monitor is a civil society initiative that conducts research and analysis on harms from and practices of explosive weapon use in populated areas for the International Network on Explosive Weapons (INEW).


20282

Running annual civilian casualty count 2022


Monthly update on Explosive Weapons use

Casualties

Populated areas

Incidents

266

Deaths

429 civilians

379 armed actors

Injuries

898 civilians

268 armed actors

Unpopulated areas

Incidents

124

Deaths

32 civilians

464 armed actors

Injuries

85 civilians

127 armed actors

Impact on civilians

Populated areas

67 % of civilians killed and injured in a populated area

Unpopulated areas

17 % of civilians killed and injured in a unpopulated area

At least one death or injury from the use of explosive weapons was recorded in 25 countries and territories in December 2022. Worldwide, there were 390 incidents of explosive weapon use resulting in 2,682 casualties, of which 1,444 (54%) were civilians. Some of the most affected countries and territories in terms of civilian casualties from the use of explosive weapons were Nigeria, Pakistan, Syria, Ukraine, and Yemen.

There were 43 incidents of explosive weapon use affecting aid access, education, and healthcare services in three countries in December 2022. Incidents were most frequent in Ukraine, where ground–launched explosive weapons damaged healthcare infrastructure. Incidents also occurred in Myanmar and Yemen. 

This data may include some incidents where a device did not detonate or where there were no civilian casualties, and includes incidents where historical items such as unexploded ordnance were found and which affected the provision of these services.

Monthly incidents by country

0

1-5

6–10

11–50

51–100

> 100

Affected countries in December 2022

Afghanistan

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were seven reported incidents of explosive weapon use in Afghanistan, which resulted in 58 civilian casualties, 11 of whom were killed and 47 injured. Civilians accounted for 88% of all 66 casualties recorded in Afghanistan in December, as six armed actors were also killed and two injured. 

All civilian casualties occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 22% (13) of civilian casualties occurred on public transport, 16% (9) in markets, 10% (6) in residential areas, 7% (4) in hospitals, and 3% (2) in police stations. Another 41% (24) occurred in other populated locations. 

The regions in which civilian casualties were reported in Afghanistan were Kandahar (24 civilian casualties), Nangarhar (15), Balkh (13), Takhar (4), and Badakhshan (2).

Non-state actors’ use of explosive weapons reportedly caused 59% (34) of civilian casualties, specifically unknown non-state actors (32 civilian casualties) and ISIS-K (2). State actors were the reported perpetrators of 41% (24) of civilian casualties, specifically unknown state actors.

Directly-emplaced weapons caused 59% (34) of civilian casualties, specifically roadside bombs (19 civilian casualties), non-specific IEDs (13), and car bombs (2). Ground-launched weapons caused 41% (24) of civilian casualties, specifically mortars.

The highest casualty incident occurred on 11 December 2022, when four civilians were killed and 20 injured in mortar shelling by unknown state actors in Spin Boldak, Kandahar, during ongoing border clashes between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

The number of incidents of explosive weapon use in Afghanistan in December remained consistent with levels in November, when six incidents and 58 civilian casualties (17 killed, 41 injured) were recorded. In October, 11 incidents were recorded, which resulted in 44 civilian casualties (5 killed, 39 injured).

Sources: Republic World, DNP India

Azerbaijan

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were two incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Azerbaijan, one of which resulted in four civilian injuries. Civilians accounted for 40% of all 10 casualties, as six armed-actor casualties were also recorded, one of whom was killed and five injured. 

On 14 December 2022, one soldier was killed, and three soldiers and four construction workers were injured, in an explosion of an anti-tank mine in Chiragli village, Kalbajar.

Sources: Trend, Vestnik Kavkaza, News AZ

Burkina Faso

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were two incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Burkina Faso, one of which resulted in 15 civilian casualties, 10 of whom were killed and five injured. Civilians accounted for 68% of all 22 casualties, as seven armed-actor casualties were also recorded, two of whom were killed and five injured.

On 25 December 2022, 10 civilians were killed and five injured when a roadside bomb detonated, hitting a civilian bus near Bougui, Est region.

Sources: Associated Press, Africa News, BBC

Central African Republic

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there was one recorded incident of explosive weapon use in the Central African Republic, which resulted in one civilian injury. There were no recorded armed-actor casualties in the Central African Republic in December. 

On 16 December 2022, the head of the Russian cultural centre was injured when a parcel bomb exploded as he opened it, in the capital city of Bangui.

Sources: WION, AFP

Ethiopia

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were two incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Ethiopia, which resulted in 15 civilian casualties, one of whom was killed and 14 injured. There were no armed-actor casualties recorded in Ethiopia in December. 

The highest casualty incident occurred on 27 December 2022 when one civilian was killed and seven injured in a grenade attack in a bar in Adama, Oromia.

Sources: Addis Standard, GeoPioneer

India

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were seven incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in India, five of which resulted in eight civilian casualties, two of whom were killed and six injured. Civilian casualties included at least five children and one woman. Civilians accounted for 57% of all 14 casualties, as six armed-actor casualties were also recorded, three of whom were killed and three injured. 

The highest casualty incident took place on 06December 2022 when two children and a woman were injured in an IED attack by unknown assailants in Basirhat city, West Bengal.

Sources: India Today

Indonesia

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there was one incident of explosive weapon use recorded in Indonesia, which resulted in one civilian injury. An additional 12 armed-actor casualties were also recorded, two of whom were killed and 10 injured. 

On 07 December 2022, two police officers were killed, and 10 police officers and one civilian were injured, in a suicide attack on a police station in Bandung, West Java. The attack was claimed by Jamaah Ansharut Daulah, an affiliate of the Islamic State.

Sources: Asia News, Associated Press, Dawn

Iraq

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were 22 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Iraq, seven of which resulted in 20 civilian casualties, four of whom were killed and 16 injured. Civilian casualties included at least six children. Civilians accounted for 19% of all 104 casualties, as 84 armed-actor casualties were also reported, 68 of whom were killed and 16 injured.

The highest casualty incident occurred on 19 December 2022, when five civilians were injured in mortar shelling by unknown actors of a civilian residence in Nahr al-Izz, Maysan.

Sources: ISHM

Kenya

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were two incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Kenya, one of which resulted in one civilian death. Seven armed-actor casualties were also recorded, three of whom were killed and five injured.

On 21 December 2022, two police officers and one civilian were killed in an IED, RPG, and firearm attack by Al Shabaab on a police vehicle in Garissa.

Sources: Nairobi News, CGTN

Libya

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there was one recorded incident of explosive weapon use in Libya, which resulted in one civilian injury. There were no armed actor casualties recorded in Libya in December.

On 26 December 2022, one civilian was injured in a landmine explosion in Ain Zara, Tripolitania.

Sources: Libya Observer

Malawi

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there was one recorded incident of explosive weapon use in Malawi, which resulted in five civilian injuries, including at least one child. There were no armed-actor casualties recorded in Malawi in December. 

On 14 December 2022, five refugees, including one child, were injured in a hand grenade explosion in Dzaleka refugee camp, Central Malawi.

Sources: VOA, Nyasa Times

Malaysia

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there was one recorded incident of explosive weapon use in Malaysia, which resulted in one civilian death. There were no armed-actor casualties recorded in Malaysia in December.

On 29 December 2022, one man was killed in a remote-detonated IED explosion in Pandan Indah, Kuala Lumpur. The IED was left on his car and exploded when he went to pick it up.

Sources: New Straits Times, Bernama, New Straits Times I

Mali

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were two recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Mali which resulted in 11 civilian casualties, nine of whom were killed and two injured. Civilian casualties included at least seven women. There were no armed-actor casualties recorded in Mali in December.

The highest casualty incident occurred on 03December 2022, when eight civilians, including seven women, were killed in an IED explosion against a cart carrying people in Kolongo, Segou. 

Sources: ECHO

Myanmar

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were 46 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar, nine of which caused 52 civilian casualties, six of whom were killed and 46 injured. Civilian casualties included at least five children and six women. Civilians accounted for 18% of the total 294 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 242 armed-actor casualties were also recorded, 146 of whom were killed and 96 injured.

All civilian casualties occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 40% (21) occurred in villages, 33% (17) on public transport, 12% (6) in places of worship, 8% (4) in agricultural lands, 4% (2) in schools, and 4% (2) in public buildings.

The states in which the most civilian casualties were reported in Myanmar were Yangon (19 civilian casualties), Magwe (10), Sagaing (9), Kachin (6), Chin (4), and Karen (4).

The majority of civilian casualties, 63% (33), were caused by the use of explosive weapons by Myanmar military forces. Actors of unknown name and status caused 33% (17) of civilian casualties, and non-state actors caused 4% (2), specifically the Myanmar Royal Dragon Army-Yangon.

Ground-launched weapons were the cause of 44% (23) of civilian casualties, specifically artillery shelling (22), and non-specific shelling (1). Directly-emplaced weapons caused 37%(19) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific IEDs, and air-launched weapons, specifically air-strikes, caused 19% (10) of civilian casualties.

The highest casualty incident occurred on 18December 2022, when 17 civilians were injured in an IED explosion on a ferry in Yangon. The military and armed groups active in the region traded blame for the attack.

The number of incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar in December dropped considerably compared to November, when 112 incidents and 158 civilian casualties (37 killed, 131 injured) were recorded. In October, 107 incidents were recorded, which resulted in 155 civilian casualties (49 killed, 106 injured).

Sources: Asahi, Associated Press, RFA

Education

In December 2022, at least two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting access to education in Myanmar.

On 23 November 2022, over 200 soldiers launched a ground raid and an aerial attack in Mon Hla village, Sagaing region, destroying over 200 buildings, including a school, killing a seven-year-old child, a 40-year-old woman, and a 30-year-old man. On 06 December 2022, a teacher and a child were injured when artillery rounds fired by the Myanmar military hit a school in Maung Ma Ywar Thit village, Kayin state.

Sources: ACLED, BNI Online, Radio Free Asia

Nigeria

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were seven recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Nigeria, four of which caused 87 civilian casualties, 69 of whom were killed and 18 injured. Civilian casualties included at least one child. Civilians accounted for 20% of the total 443 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 256 armed actors were also killed.

The vast majority, 98% (85), of civilian casualties occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 87% (76) occurred in villages, and 10% (10) in urban residential areas.The remaining 2% (2) of civilian casualties occurred on unpopulated roads.

The states in which the most civilian casualties were reported in Nigeria were Zamfara (76 civilian casualties), Kogi (6), Borno (3), and Niger (2).

The majority of civilian casualties, 87% (76), were caused by state actors’ use of explosive weapons, specifically the Nigerian Air Force. Use by non-state actors caused 13% (11) of civilian casualties, specifically Islamic State's West Africa Province (ISWAP) (6 civilian casualties) and unknown non-state actors (5).

Air-launched weapons were the cause of 87% (76) of civilian casualties, specifically air-strikes. Directly-emplaced weapons caused 13%(11) of civilian casualties, specifically car bombs (6 civilian casualties), non-specific IEDs (3), and landmines (2).

The highest casualty incident occurred on 18 December 2022, when 64 civilians were killed and 12 injured in a Nigerian military forces airstrike in a village in Zamfara.

Civilian casualties of explosive weapon use in Nigeria in December rose considerably compared to November, when 10 incidents caused seven reported civilian casualties (six killed, one injured). In October, four incidents of explosive weapon use were recorded, and they caused no civilian casualties.

Sources: Premium Times NG, African Union Press, Street Journal

Occupied Palestinian Territories

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were no recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in the Occupied Palestinian Territories which resulted in civilian casualties. Two armed actors were injured in the Occupied Palestinian Territories in December.

On 05 December 2022, two border police officers were injured when an IED was thrown at them near a refugee camp in Aida, Bethlehem.

Sources: Times of Israel, Jerusalem Post, Jewish Press 

Pakistan

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were 15 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Pakistan, 12 of which caused 116 civilian casualties, 14 of whom were killed and 102 injured. Civilian casualties included at least one woman and four children. Civilians accounted for 75% of the total 154 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 38 armed-actor casualties were also recorded, 18 of whom were killed and 20 injured.

All civilian casualties occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 48% (56) occurred in urban residential areas, 33% (38) in commercial premises, 14% (16) in police stations, 3% (3) in urban residential areas, 2% (2) on roads, and <1% (1) in markets.

The provinces in which the most civilian casualties were reported in Pakistan were Balochistan (97 civilian casualties), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (12), and Islamabad (7). 

The majority of civilian casualties, 57% (66), were caused by non-state actors’ use of explosive weapons, specifically unknown non-state actors (56 civilian casualties) and the Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) (10). Use by state actors caused 42% (49) of civilian casualties, specifically unknown state actors (33 civilian casualties) and Afghan armed forces (16). Actors of unknown name and status caused <1% (1) of civilian casualties.

Ground-launched weapons caused 59% (68) of civilian casualties, specifically multiple ground-launched weapon types (33 civilian casualties), grenades (19), and non-specific shelling (16). Directly-emplaced weapons caused 41%(48) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific IEDs (41 civilian casualties) and car bombs (7).

The highest casualty incident occurred on 11 December 2022, when nine civilians were killed and 24 injured in artillery shelling and gunfire in Chaman, Balochistan.

Civilian casualties of explosive weapon use in Pakistan in December rose considerably compared to November, when nine incidents caused 19 reported civilian casualties (10 killed, 9 injured). In October, 13 incidents of explosive weapon use were recorded, which resulted in 28 reported civilian casualties (seven killed, 21 injured).

Sources: Pajhwok, Reuters, Minute Mirror

Philippines

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were no incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in the Philippines which resulted in civilian casualties. Six armed actors were injured in the Philippines in December. 

On 18December 2022, six soldiers were injured when an anti-personnel mine planted by the New People’s Army exploded in Las Navas, Northern Samar.

Source: Inquirer, PhilStar

Russia

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were three incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Russia, one of which resulted in nine civilian casualties, one of whom was killed and eight injured. Civilians accounted for 41% of all 22 casualties, as 13 armed-actor casualties were also reported, seven of whom were killed and six injured. 

On 18December 2022, one civilian was killed and eight injured in Ukrainian shelling of the city of Belgorod.

Source: Pravda, Reuters, Mehr News Agency

Somalia

December 2022

In December 2022, there were eight recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia, three of which caused 16 civilian casualties, three of whom were killed and 13 injured. Civilians accounted for 31% of the total 51 casualties of explosive weapons use in Somalia in December, as 35 armed-actor casualties were also recorded, 28 of whom were killed and seven injured.

The highest casualty incident took place on 23December 2022, when two civilians were killed and nine injured in mortar shelling by unknown actors on Baidoa’s Bardale neighbourhood, South West Somalia.

Sources: Horn Observer

Thailand

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were three recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Thailand, one of which resulted in seven civilian casualties, three of whom were killed and four injured. Civilians accounted for 64% of all 11 casualties, as four armed actors were also injured.

On 06 December 2022, three rail workers were killed and four injured in an IED explosion on train-tracks in Tha Pho, Songkhla.

Sources: Says, Bangkok Post, Associated Press

Turkey

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there was one recorded incident of explosive weapon use in Turkey, which resulted in one civilian injury. Eight armed actors were also injured.

On 16 December 2022, eight police officers and one civilian were injured in a roadside bomb explosion in Diyarbakir.

Sources: Daily Sabah, Xinhua

Ukraine

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were 195 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Ukraine, 189 of which resulted in 878 civilian casualties, of whom 279 were killed and 599 injured. Civilian casualties included at least 17 children and 23 women. Civilians accounted for 73% of all 1,199 casualties, as there were an additional 321 armed-actor casualties, of whom 153 were killed and 168 injured.

The majority of civilian casualties, 90% (794), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 40% (354) occurred across multiple urban areas, 24% (209) in urban residential areas, 16% (138) in villages, 4% (36) in schools, 1% (13) in humanitarian infrastructure, 1% (12) in town centres, 1% (9) in public buildings and other locations, respectively, and <1% in hospitals (3), hotels (3), roads (3), places of worship (2), entertainment venues (2), and commercial premises (1). 

The regions in which civilian casualties were reported in Ukraine were Kherson (272 civilian casualties), Donetsk (234), Luhansk (152), Kharkiv (56), Zaporizhzhia (46), Dnipropetrovsk (44), Kyiv (38), Khmelnytskyi (18), Mykolaiv (10), Odesa (5), Chernihiv (1), Ivano-Frankivsk (1), and Sumy (1).

The vast majority of civilian casualties, 98% (863), were caused by state actors’ use of explosive weapons. Specifically, Russian armed forces reportedly caused 75% (656) of civilian casualties and Ukraine’s armed forces 24% (207). Perpetrators of unknown status and name reportedly caused 1% (9) of civilian casualties, and unknown non-state armed groups caused <1% (6) of civilian casualties.

The use of ground-launched explosive weapons were the cause of 91% (803) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific shelling (541 civilian casualties), combined ground-launched weapon systems (125), missiles (53), artillery shells (49), rockets (33), and mortars (2). Directly-emplaced weapons caused 3% (23) of civilian casualties, specifically landmines (11 civilian casualties), roadside bombs (5), non-specific IEDs (5), and car bombs (2). Air-launched weapons caused 1% (8) of civilian casualties, specifically airstrikes (5 civilian casualties) and missiles (3). 5% (44) of civilian casualties were caused by missiles of unclear launch method.

The highest casualty incident occurred on 31December 2022, when two civilians were killed and 21 injured in a ground-launched missile attack on Kyiv by Russian armed forces.

The number of incidents of explosive weapon use in Ukraine in December decreased from November, in which 223 incidents were recorded. However, fewer civilian casualties, 722, were recorded in November (171 killed and 551 injured). In October, 233 incidents  caused 1,013 civilian casualties (298 killed and 715 injured). 

Sources: Kyiv Independent, Ukrinform, Interfax Ukraine

Education

In December 2022, at least six incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of education were recorded in Ukraine. All were reported in Donetsk and Kherson oblasts. Schools, kindergartens, an Institute of Technology and Management, a college and a boarding school, were damaged by ground-launched explosive weapons, such as shelling, mortars and rocket attacks by Russian forces. 

In one incident on 13 December 2022 in Kramatorsk city, Donetsk oblast, the city's Institute of Technology and Management was damaged in a missile attack on the area by Russian troops.

Source: Confidentially-shared information

Healthcare

In December 2022, at least 34 incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of healthcare were recorded in Ukraine. About 50% were reported in Kherson oblast. More than 75% of incidents recorded ambulances, health clinics, hospitals and pharmacies in Ukraine being damaged through ground-launched explosives, such as shelling, mortars and rocket attacks by Russian forces. Two hospitals were damaged by Russian air-launched explosives in Kyiv and Zaporizhia oblasts. A health worker was killed and four others injured when the facility they were working in was hit by Russian shells, and a paramedic was injured while providing emergency response health care.

In one incident on 11 December 2022, a hospital's neurosurgery ward was hit when several shells exploded in the city. At least two hospitals were damaged by Russian air-launched explosives in Kyiv and Zaporizhia oblasts. 

Source: Confidentially-shared information

Yemen

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were 15 incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Yemen, 10 of which resulted in 77 civilian casualties, of whom 20 were killed and 57 injured. Civilians accounted for 76% of the total 101 casualties, as there were also 24 recorded armed-actor casualties, eight of whom were killed and 16 injured.

The majority, 79% (61) of civilian casualties occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 27% (21) occurred in places of worship, 23% (18) in villages, 18% (14) at public gatherings, and 10% (8) in agricultural lands. 

The regions in which civilian casualties were reported in Yemen were Saada (34 civilian casualties), Hadramout (21), Marib (14), and Hudaydah (8).

The majority of civilian casualties, 53% (41), were caused by state actors’ use of explosive weapons, specifically Saudi Arabia. Non-state actors, specifically unknown non-state actors, caused 36% (28) of civilian casualties, and actors of unknown name and status caused 10% (8).

The majority, 90% (69), of civilian casualties were caused by ground-launched weapons, specifically artillery shells (38), grenades (21), and non-specific shelling (10). Directly-emplaced weapons, specifically landmines, caused 10% (8) of civilian casualties. 

The highest casualty incident occurred on 02December 2022, when one civilian was killed and 20 injured in a grenade attack on a mosque in Yabath, Hadramaut, during Friday prayers. 

Incidents of explosive weapon use in Yemen in December increased since November, when 10 incidents were recorded, resulting in 30 civilian casualties (seven killed, 23 injured). In October,  23 incidents were recorded, causing 44 civilian casualties (14 killed, 30 injured).

Sources: Al Mayadeen, Urdu Point, India Blooms

Aid access

On 18 December 2022, grenades of unidentified origin were dropped on the office of the INGO MedGlobal office, damaging several facilities, including a generator, water pipes, and a fuel tank.

Sources: MedGlobal I, MedGlobal II


Annual count 2022

Recorded casualties

2,500 2,250 2,000 1,750 1,500 1,250 1,000 750 500 250 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Civilian deaths and injuries in populated areas Civilian deaths and injuries in unpopulated areas Armed actors deaths and injuries in populated areas Armed actors deaths and injuries in unpopulated areas

Recorded incidents affecting aid access, education and healthcare

Aid Education Healthcare 80 90 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

Explosive Weapons Type

Ai r -launched Ground-launched Directly emplaced Combination 3,477 Civilian casualties 11 Aid access incidents 9 Aid access incidents 12 Aid access incidents 1 Aid access incidents 10 Education incidents 76 Education incidents 17 Education incidents 0 Education incidents 37 Healthcare incidents 195 Healthcare incidents 26 Healthcare incidents 1 Healthcare incidents 10,586 Civilian casualties 4,834 Civilian casualties 356 Civilian casualties Recorded incidents between 1 January and 30 November 2022 85% of total 57% of total 46% of total 31% of total