Somalia

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Somalia

April 2024

Somalia

March 2024

Somalia

February 2024

Somalia

January 2024

Somalia

December 2023

Somalia

October 2023

Somalia

September 2023

Somalia

August 2023

Somalia

July 2023

Somalia

June 2023

Somalia

May 2023

Somalia

April 2023

Somalia

March 2023

Somalia

February 2023

Somalia

January 2023

Somalia

December 2022

In December 2022, there were eight recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia, three of which caused 16 civilian casualties, three of whom were killed and 13 injured. Civilians accounted for 31% of the total 51 casualties of explosive weapons use in Somalia in December, as 35 armed-actor casualties were also recorded, 28 of whom were killed and seven injured.

The highest casualty incident took place on 23December 2022, when two civilians were killed and nine injured in mortar shelling by unknown actors on Baidoa’s Bardale neighbourhood, South West Somalia.

Sources: Horn Observer

Somalia

November 2022

Casualties

In November 2022, there were seven recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia, two of which caused 33 civilian casualties, 12 of whom were killed and 21 injured. Civilians accounted for 38% of the total 88 casualties of explosive weapons use in Somalia in November, as 55 armed actors were also killed.

Both incidents which caused civilian casualties occurred in populated areas, in attacks using IEDs by non-state groups. Both occurred in Mogadishu.

The highest casualty incident took place on 5November 2022, when Al Shabaab carried out a suicide attack near a military training centre in Mogadishu, with other blasts also occurring around the city. Ten civilians were killed and 15 were injured

Sources: Critical Threats, Voice of America, Crisis24

Somalia

October 2022

Casualties

In October 2022, there were 14 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia, nine of which caused 627 civilian casualties, 186 of whom were killed and 441 injured. Civilians accounted for 95% of the total 661 casualties of explosive weapons use in Somalia in October, as 34 armed actors were also killed. 

All but one civilian casualty occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 72% (454) occurred in locations where the blast impacted multiple urban areas, 9% (56) in hotels, public buildings, and roads, respectively, and <1% (4) occurred in urban residential areas.

The states in which civilian casualties were reported in Somalia were Banaadir (471 civilian casualties), Jubaland (56), Hirshabelle (56), Lower Shabelle (27), and Hiiraan (17).

The majority of civilian casualties, 96% (601), were caused by non-state actors’ use of explosive weapons. In particular, Al Shabaab were reportedly responsible for 93% (583) of civilian casualties, and unknown non-state actors for 3% (18). Groups of unknown name and status were the reported perpetrators in the case of 4% (26) of civilian casualties.

The use of directly-emplaced explosive weapons caused all civilian casualties, specifically car bombs (583 civilian casualties), roadside bombs (39), and non-specific IEDs (5).

The number of recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia in October 2022 remained consistent with September, when 15 incidents were recorded. However, significantly fewer civilian casualties, 53, were recorded in September (15 killed and 38 injured). In August 2022, there were 10 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use, which resulted in 54 civilian casualties (14 killed and 40 injured). 

Sources: VoA, Associated Press, Reuters

Healthcare

There was one incident of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of healthcare recorded in Somalia in October. 

On 29 October 2022, a car bomb planted by al Shabaab militants detonated near the Education Ministry in Mogadishu, as students lined up to collect their high school certificates. A second bomb went off as medical teams arrived on the scene, killing at least 100 people, including mothers and children, fathers with medical conditions, students, and business owners. 

Sources: BBC, The Guardian, The New York Times

Somalia

September 2022

Casualties

In September 2022, there were 15 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia, seven of which caused 53 civilian casualties, 15 of whom were killed and 38 injured. At least three children were recorded among the civilian casualties. Civilians accounted for 39% of the total 137 casualties of explosive weapons use in Somalia in September, as 84 armed-actor casualties were also recorded, 68 of whom were killed and 16 injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 83% (44), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 38% (20) occurred on roads, 26% (14) in urban residential areas, 13% (7) in transport-related infrastructure, and 6% (3) in schools.

The states in which civilian casualties were reported in Somalia were Banaadir (14), MIddle Shabelle (14), Hiiraan (14), Lower Shabelle (7), and Hirshabelle (4).

The majority of civilian casualties, 58% (29), were caused by non-state actors’ use of explosive weapons. In particular, Al Shabaab were responsible for 36% (19) of civilian casualties, and unknown non-state actors caused 19% (10). Groups of unknown name and status were the reported perpetrators of 45% (24) of civilian casualties.

Directly-emplaced explosive weapons caused 74% (39) of civilian casualties, specifically landmines (18), roadside bombs (14), and non-specific IEDs (7). Ground-launched weapons caused 26% (14) of civilian casualties, specifically mortars.

The highest casualty incident occurred on 01 September 2022, when three civilians were killed and 11 injured in a mortar attack on residential areas near the presidential residence in Mogadishu, Banaadir. 

The number of recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia in September 2022 saw a rise from August, when 10 incidents caused 54 civilian casualties (14 killed and 40 injured). In July 2022, there were 11 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use, which resulted in 70 civilian casualties (30 killed and 40 injured). 

Sources: Anadolu Agency, Shabelle Media, BBC

Somalia

August 2022

Casualties

In August 2022, there were 10 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia, eight of which caused 54 civilian casualties, 14 of whom were killed and 40 injured. At least one woman and nine children were recorded among the civilian casualties. Civilians accounted for 76% of the total 71 casualties of explosive weapons use in Somalia in August, as 17 armed actors were also killed. 

All of the civilian casualties occurred in populated areas, specifically 46% (25) in urban residential areas, 37% (20) on roads, 11% (6) in hotels, and 6% (3) in villages.

The states in which civilian casualties were reported in Somalia were Banaadir (25), Jubaland (20), Hirshabelle (6), and Toghdeer (3).

The majority of civilian casualties, 94% (51), were caused by non-state actors’ use of explosive weapons. In particular, unknown non-state actors caused 57% (31) of civilian casualties, and Al Shabaab were responsible for 37% (20) of civilian casualties. Groups of unknown name and status were the reported perpetrators of 6% (3) of civilian casualties.

Directly-emplaced explosive weapons caused 61% (33) of civilian casualties, specifically mines (23), car bombs (6), and non-specific IEDs (4). Ground-launched weapons caused 39% (21) of civilian casualties, in particular mortars (20) and grenades (1).

The highest casualty incident occurred on 20 August 2022, when four children and their mother were killed, and their father and 14 others injured in Al Shabaab mortar shelling near the Police Academy, in Mogadishu's Hamar Jajab district, just hours after Al Shabaab took over the hotel. 

The number of recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia in August 2022 remained consistent with incidents recorded in July, when 11 incidents caused 70 civilian casualties (30 killed and 40 injured). In June 2022, there were three recorded incidents of explosive weapon use, which resulted in two civilians being injured. 

Sources: Hiiraan, Shabelle Media

Healthcare

On 07 August 2022, a hospital was damaged when Al Shabaab reportedly fired mortar shells in the vicinity of the area where a parliament session was ongoing in Mogadishu, Somalia. 

Source: ACLED

Somalia

July 2022

Casualties

In July 2022, there were 11 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia, six of which caused 70 civilian casualties, 30 of whom were killed and 40 injured. At least one child was recorded among the civilian casualties. Civilians accounted for 79% of the total 89 casualties of explosive weapons use in Somalia in July, as 19 armed-actor casualties were also recorded, 14 of whom were killed and five injured. 

All of the civilian casualties occurred in populated areas, specifically 33% (23) in markets, 27% (19) in hotels, 26% (18) in public buildings, and 14% (10) in urban residential areas.

The states in which civilian casualties were reported in Somalia were Lower Shabelle (41 civilian casualties), Middle Shabelle (19), Bay (9), and Banaadir (1).

All of the civilian casualties were caused by non-state actors’ use of explosive weapons. In particular, Al Shabaab caused 86% (60) of civilian casualties, and unknown non-state actors were responsible for 14% (10) of civilian casualties.

All of the civilian casualties were caused by directly-emplaced weapons, in particular 73% (51) were from non-specific IEDs and 27% (19) from car bombs.

The highest casualty incident occurred on 27 July 2022, when at least seven civilians were killed and 14 injured in an explosion perpetrated by Al Shabaab at a livestock market in Afgoye town, Lower Shabelle. 

The number of recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia in July 2022 saw a significant rise from June, in which three incidents caused two civilian injuries. In May 2022, there were five recorded incidents of explosive weapon use, which resulted in 25 civilian casualties (five killed, 20 injured). 

Sources: Anadolu Agency, VOA, Republic World

Somalia

June 2022

Casualties

In June 2022, there were three incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Somalia, one of which resulted in two civilian casualties, all of whom were injured. Civilians constituted 10% of the 20 casualties of explosive weapon use in Somalia in June 2022, as 18 armed actors were also killed. 

On 27 June 2022, two journalists were injured, and two soldiers were killed, in a roadside bomb explosion targeting the Hiran’s regional governor.  

Source: Crisis24, Hiiraan Online

 

Somalia

May 2022

Casualties

In May 2022, there were five incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Somalia, three of which resulted in 25 civilian casualties, five of whom were killed and 20 injured. At least one woman and three children were recorded among the civilian casualties. Civilians constituted 57% of casualties of explosive violence in Somalia in May 2022, as 19 armed actors were killed and 27 were injured in May. 

The highest casualty incident occurred on 11 May 2022, when two civilians were killed and 10 injured in a shelling attack on a village. Al Shabaab claimed responsibility for the attack.  

Source: The Nation, Shabelle Media

Somalia

April 2022

Casualties

In April 2022, there were four incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Somalia, three of which caused 25 civilian casualties, nine of whom were killed and 16 injured. Civilians accounted for 64% of the total 39 casualties of explosive weapons, as there were also 14 armed-actor casualties, all of whom were killed. 

Directly-emplaced weapons, specifically improvised explosive devices, caused 52% (13) of civilian casualties in Somalia in April 2022. 

The incident with the highest recorded number of civilian casualties took place on 22 April 2022, when six civilians were killed and seven injured in a bomb blast perpetrated by Al-Shabaab, in Mogadishu. 

Source: Al Jazeera, AP

Somalia

March 2022

Casualties

In March 2022, there were four incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Somalia, two of which caused 157 civilian casualties, 49 of whom were killed and 108 injured. Civilians accounted for 90% of the total 175 casualties, as there were also 18 armed-actor casualties, 13 of whom were killed, and five injured. 

All of the 157 civilian casualties occurred in populated areas, in a public building (156 civilian casualties) and an urban residential area (1).

The regions in which civilian casualties of explosive weapon use occurred were Hirshabelle (156) and Banaadir (1).

The use of directly-emplaced weapons, specifically improvised explosive devices, were the cause of all civilian casualties.

All civilian casualties were caused by non-state actors’ use of explosive weapons. Al-Shabaab was the reported perpetrator in the case of 156 of the 157 civilian casualties, while the perpetrator group of the remaining one civilian casualty was unknown. 

The number of civilian casualties from explosive weapon use recorded in Somalia last month rose for a second consecutive month, by 27%, from 124 civilian casualties in February to 157 in March. The number of recorded incidents, however, fell, from 10 in February to four in March. This increase is largely due to a high casualty incident recorded on 23 March 2022.

Sources: Reuters, VOA, AFP

Healthcare

On 23 March 2022, 48 people were killed and 108 injured in twin suicide bombings carried out by members of Al-Shabaab at a local government building in Beledweyne, Hirshabelle. The first blast reportedly targeted a member of the Somali parliament, and the second blast targeted the crowd who went to help the victims of the initial explosion at the main hospital where casualties were being taken.

Sources: Reuters, VOA, AFP, The New Arab and The New Humanitarian

Somalia

February 2022

Casualties

In February 2022, there were ten incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Somalia, nine of which resulted in 124 civilian casualties, 46 of whom were killed and 78 injured. Civilian casualties included at least two children. Civilians accounted for 65% of the total 190 casualties, as there were also 66 armed-actor casualties, all of whom were killed. 

All of the 124 civilian casualties occurred in populated areas in locations such as entertainment venues (53 civilian casualties), urban residential areas (31), a police station (18), roads (18), and villages (4).

The regions in which civilian casualties of explosive weapon use occurred were Banaadir (37), Hirshabelle (33), Bari (13), Lower Juba (13), Puntland (12), Southern region (12), and Middle Shabelle (4).

The use of directly-emplaced weapons, specifically IEDs (53 cvilian casualites), car bombs (37) and roadside bombs (22), were the cause of 90% (112) of civilian casualties. Ground-launched explosive weapons, specifically a mortar attack, caused 10% (12) of civilian casualties.

All civilian casualties were caused by non-state actors’ use of explosive weapons. Al-Shabaab was the reported perpetrator in the case of 91% (113) of civilian casualties, while the perpetrator group of the remaining 9% (11) civilian casualties was unknown. 

The highest casualty incident last month took place on 16 February 2022, when an IED explosion at a police checkpoint killed two civilians and three police, and injured 16 other civilians. Two young girls were among the civilian casualties. The attack was perpetrated by members of Al-Shabaab.

The number of civilian casualties from explosive weapon use recorded in Somalia last month has risen substantially, by 226%, from 38 in January 2022 to 124 in February 2022. This is the highest monthly civilian casualty toll recorded in Somalia since January 2021. The number of armed-actor casualties also rose significantly, from four in January to 66 in February. The number of recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia in February 2022 more than doubled from the previous month.

Sources: All Africa, Garowe

Somalia

January 2022

Casualties

In January 2022, there were three incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Somalia that resulted in 34 civilian casualties, 13 of whom were killed and 21 injured. Civilian casualties included at least one man. Civilians accounted for 92% of the total 37 casualties, as there were also three armed-actor casualties, all of whom were killed while carrying out suicide attacks. 

All of the 34 civilian casualties occurred in populated areas and were the result of the use of directly-emplaced weapons, specifically car bombs (20 civilian casualties) and a non-specific IEDs (14). All civilian casualties were caused by non-state actors’ use of explosive weapons. Al-Shabaab was the reported perpetrator in the case of 31 civilian casualties, while the perpetrator of the remaining three civilian casualties was unreported. 

All incidents of explosive weapon use occurred in the capital city Mogadishu, in locations such as a road (17 civilian casualties), a location in which the detonation of an explosive weapon affects multiple types of spaces within an urban environment (14), and a road (3).

The highest casualty incident last month took place on 12 January 2022, when an Al-Shabaab suicide car bomb was detonated on a road in Mogadishu, killing eight civilians and injuring nine others. 

Sources: NYT, AP, VOA

Aid access

On 12 January 2021, in the city of Mogadishu, Somalia, a United Nations staff member driving a vehicle was injured when a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED) targeting a nearby convoy exploded. 

Source: AWSD

 

Somalia

December 2021

Casualties

In December 2021, there were five incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Somalia, four of which caused a total of 21 civilian casualties, 12 of whom were killed and nine injured. Civilians accounted for 72% of the total 29 casualties, as there were also eight armed-actor casualties, five of whom were killed and three injured. 

The majority, 81% (17), of civilian casualties occurred in populated areas. Non-specific improvised explosive devices caused 18 civilian casualties and three were caused by a mortar strike. Al-Shabaab was the perpetrator of all civilian casualties. 

The regions in which civilian casualties occurred were Bay (10), Hirshabelle (4), Lower Juba (4), and Banaadir (3). The highest casualty incident took place on 5 December, when an improvised explosive device was remotely-detonated by Al-Shabaab at a busy restaurant, killing five civilians and wounding six others. 

Sources: Anadolu Agency, Albawaba

Somalia

November 2021

Casualties

In November 2021, there were five incidents of explosive weapon use recorded in Somalia, four of which caused a total of 51 civilian casualties, 32 of whom were injured and 19 killed. Civilians accounted for the majority, 89%, of the total 57 casualties recorded in Somalia. There were an additional 6 armed-actor casualties, all of whom were killed. 

All civilian casualties occurred in populated areas and were the result of the use of IEDs. The location-types in which civilian casualties occurred include 49% (25) in or near a school, 35% (18) in a market, 12% (6) in an urban residential area, and two in multiple urban spaces. 

Three incidents that collectively killed or injured 33 civilians took place in the capital city Mogadishu, Banaadir. Additionally, 18 civilian casualties were recorded in one incident that took place in Bardale, Bay.

Non-state actors were the recorded perpetrator of all civilian casualties, with Al-Shabaab specifically named as the reported perpetrator in the case of 33 civilian casualties. The group responsible for the remaining 18 civilian casualties was unknown. 

The highest casualty incident took place on 25 November 2021, when an al-Shabaab suicide attack targeted Mocaasir school in Mogadishu, killing eight people and injuring 17 others, including 13 children.

Civilian casualties in November 2021 were over eight-times higher than in October, as suicide attacks by Al-Shabaab in populated areas rose. Explosive weapon use was also concentrated in densely populated areas of the capital city Mogadishu in November 2021, compared to more rural regions in October. 

Sources: Reuters, CNN

Aid Access and Education

On 25 November 2021, in Mogadishu, Somalia, an al-Shabaab-claimed car bombing near a school killed at least eight people and injured 17, including school children. The blast was followed by a brief gunfight. The group claimed that the bombing intended to strike a United Nations security convoy. 

Sources: Al Jazeera, Garowe Online I and Garowe Online II

Somalia

October 2021

Casualties

In October 2021, there were four recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia that caused six civilian casualties, three of whom were killed and three injured. Civilians accounted for 33% (6) of the total recorded deaths and injuries (18), and there were an additional 12 armed-actor casualties. The majority of civilian casualties (five of six) occurred in populated areas, specifically on commercial premises and an urban residential area. 

Three of the civilian casualties were caused by grenades and three were caused by IEDs. The highest casualty incident took place on 16 October 2021, when two people were killed and at least one other wounded (there may be several) by an IED blast in Baledweyne, Hiran.

Sources: Devdiscourse, Garda

Healthcare

As reported on 24 October 2021, in Guriel town and district in the Galgaduud region of Somalia, mortar shells of unidentified origin hit the Istarlin Hospital, causing damage. As health workers were displaced, operations at the hospital were suspended. 

Sources: Goobjoog and OCHA

Somalia

September 2021

Casualties

In September 2021, there were four incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia, which caused 48 civilian casualties, including 22 fatalities and 26 injuries. All incidents took place in populated areas and were perpetrated by non-state actors, primarily the insurgent group al-Shabaab. All civilian casualties in Somalia in September were caused by directly-emplaced weapons, specifically IEDs and a car bomb. Two of the four incidents were suicide attacks. The incident with the highest number of civilian casualties occured on 14 September, when 11 people were killed and 16 injured by an al-Shabaab suicide bombing at a tea shop in Mogadishu. On 25 September, eight civilians were killed and seven injured in a suicide car bombing by al-Shabaab at a police checkpoint near the presidential palace in Mogadishu.

Civilian casualty numbers have nearly tripled in Somalia since August 2021, while armed-actor casualties dropped drastically, from 106 in August to two in September.

Sources: Anadolu Agency, Daily Sabah, Reuters, The Guardian

Somalia

August 2021

There were five incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia in August 2021, and 17 civilian casualties, ten of whom were killed and seven injured. There were 106 armed actor casualties, 98 of whom were killed and eight injured. 90 of the 106 armed actor casualties were al-Shabaab militants killed in an airstrike by the Somali military on 24 August. All 17 civilian casualties were caused by directly emplaced weapons, specifically IEDs, roadside bombs and car bombs. Two incidents and five civilian casualties were caused by suicide attacks. 15 of the 17 civilian casualties occurred in populated areas. 

The highest casualty incident for civilians took place on 10 August in Beledweyne, Mudug, where 8 civilians were killed and four wounded by a roadside bomb. The perpetrator of the incident is unknown. The number of civilian casualties in August decreased significantly, from 59 in July to 17 this month. 

Sources: Mehr News Agency, Airwars, GardaWorld, The News

Somalia

July 2021

There were four incidents of explosive weapon use in Somalia in July 2021, causing 59 civilian casualties, 36 of whom were killed and 23 injured. There were two armed-actor casualties. All incidents of explosive weapon use involved directly emplaced weapons, specifically IEDs, and two of the four incidents were suicide attacks. 58 of the 59 civilian deaths and injuries took place in populated areas.

The worst incident for civilian casualties of explosive weapon use took place on 2 July when an al-Shabaab suicide bomber detonated his vest in a crowded tea shop near a hotel in Mogadishu, killing at least 10 people and wounding at least 22 others. The incident with the second highest number of civilian casualties was also an al-Shabaab suicide bombing in Mogadishu that took place eight days later on 10 July and used a car bomb, killing nine civilians and injuring eight others. There were over five times more civilian casualties of explosive weapon use in Somalia in July than in June. Sources: Al Jazeera, The Hindu, Somali Guardian, Reuters, Guardian.

Somalia

June 2021

In June 2021, there were three recorded incidents involving use of explosive weapons in Somalia, causing 11 civilian casualties, seven of whom were killed and four injured. Five casualties were reportedly children. There were 39 recorded armed-actor casualties, 19 of whom were killed and 20 injured. Two of the three incidents were suicide attacks using IEDs. One incident was an airstrike in Jubbaland by the Kenyan air force, which caused exclusively civilian casualties, six in total, five of whom were children, and one a pregnant woman. Thirty-six of the 39 armed actor casualties occured in one al-Shabaab suicide attack on 15 June at an armed base for new military recruits in Mogadishu. Another al- Shabaab suicide attack using a car bomb killed five civilians and three armed actors in Wisil, Galmudug region. Civilian casualties from the use of explosive weapons are half that of May 2021, and the lowest this year. However, armed actor casualties are nearly double that of May 2021. Sources: Xinhua, ANI, Reuters, Xinhua, Reuters.

Somalia

May 2021

There were 22 civilian casualties from explosive weapon use in Somalia in May 2021, eight of whom were killed and 14 were injured. There were 23 recorded armed-actor casualties, all of which were fatal. IEDs accounted for six of the seven incidents of explosive weapon use in the country. Two incidents were suicide attacks. On 10 May, six people were killed and six injured when a suicide bomber detonated outside a police station in Mogadishu’s Waberi district. There has been a decrease in the number of civilian casualties compared to April, which saw triple the number of civilian casualties and over four times the number of civilian deaths, across eight incidents of explosive weapon use. Source: Xinhua Net