Myanmar

Recent updates

Myanmar

November 2023

Myanmar

October 2023

Myanmar

September 2023

Myanmar

August 2023

Myanmar

July 2023

Myanmar

June 2023

Myanmar

May 2023

Myanmar

April 2023

Myanmar

March 2023

Myanmar

February 2023

Myanmar

January 2023

Myanmar

December 2022

Casualties

In December 2022, there were 46 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar, nine of which caused 52 civilian casualties, six of whom were killed and 46 injured. Civilian casualties included at least five children and six women. Civilians accounted for 18% of the total 294 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 242 armed-actor casualties were also recorded, 146 of whom were killed and 96 injured.

All civilian casualties occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 40% (21) occurred in villages, 33% (17) on public transport, 12% (6) in places of worship, 8% (4) in agricultural lands, 4% (2) in schools, and 4% (2) in public buildings.

The states in which the most civilian casualties were reported in Myanmar were Yangon (19 civilian casualties), Magwe (10), Sagaing (9), Kachin (6), Chin (4), and Karen (4).

The majority of civilian casualties, 63% (33), were caused by the use of explosive weapons by Myanmar military forces. Actors of unknown name and status caused 33% (17) of civilian casualties, and non-state actors caused 4% (2), specifically the Myanmar Royal Dragon Army-Yangon.

Ground-launched weapons were the cause of 44% (23) of civilian casualties, specifically artillery shelling (22), and non-specific shelling (1). Directly-emplaced weapons caused 37%(19) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific IEDs, and air-launched weapons, specifically air-strikes, caused 19% (10) of civilian casualties.

The highest casualty incident occurred on 18December 2022, when 17 civilians were injured in an IED explosion on a ferry in Yangon. The military and armed groups active in the region traded blame for the attack.

The number of incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar in December dropped considerably compared to November, when 112 incidents and 158 civilian casualties (37 killed, 131 injured) were recorded. In October, 107 incidents were recorded, which resulted in 155 civilian casualties (49 killed, 106 injured).

Sources: Asahi, Associated Press, RFA

Education

In December 2022, at least two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting access to education in Myanmar.

On 23 November 2022, over 200 soldiers launched a ground raid and an aerial attack in Mon Hla village, Sagaing region, destroying over 200 buildings, including a school, killing a seven-year-old child, a 40-year-old woman, and a 30-year-old man. On 06 December 2022, a teacher and a child were injured when artillery rounds fired by the Myanmar military hit a school in Maung Ma Ywar Thit village, Kayin state.

Sources: ACLED, BNI Online, Radio Free Asia

Myanmar

November 2022

Casualties

In November 2022, there were 112 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar, 32 of which caused 158 civilian casualties, 37 of whom were killed and 121 injured. Civilian casualties included at least 27 children and 19 women. Civilians accounted for 21% of the total 744 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 586 armed-actor casualties were also recorded, 383 of whom were killed and 203 injured.

The majority of civilian casualties, 97% (154), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 77% (121) occurred in villages, 8% (13) at schools and 7% (11) on transport-related infrastructure.

The states in which the most civilian casualties were reported in Myanmar were Rakhine (69 civilian casualties), Shan (26), Karen (21), and Kayah (14).

The majority of civilian casualties, 85% (135), were caused by the use of explosive weapons by Myanmar military forces. Non-state actors caused 11% (18) of civilian casualties, and 3% (5) civilian casualties were caused by incidents where the status of the perpetrator was unknown.

Ground-launched weapons were the cause of 63% (100) of civilian casualties, specifically artillery shelling (51), mortars (40) and non-specific shelling (9). Air-launched weapons caused 15% (24) of civilian casualties, and directly-emplaced weapons caused 11% (18) of civilian casualties, specifically IEDs.

The highest casualty incident occurred on 16November 2022, when 10 civilians were killed and 27 injured in Myanmar mortar shelling of Jeitchaung village, Rakhine. Civilians were attending a religious ceremony at one of the houses. Three homes were destroyed.

The number of incidents and recorded civilian casualties from explosive weapon use in Myanmar in November 2022 were comparable to the numbers recorded in October 2022, when 155 civilian casualties were reported, 49 of whom were killed and 106 injured.

Sources: BNI, Myanmar Now, Mizzima

Healthcare

In November 2022, there were two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting access to healthcare in Ethiopia. 

On 08 November 2022, a health worker was injured in a landmine explosion while on his way to meet a patient near Kyar Ta Kan village, Htan Pin Kone village tract, Kyunhla township, Kanbalu district, Sagaing region. The Myanmar military attributed the planting of the landmine to local defence forces. 

On 18 November 2022, a private dental clinic, two shops, and a car were damaged and one civilian killed in an explosion of unidentified origin in Mandalay region. 

Sources: BBC Burmese, Facebook, Telegram

Myanmar

October 2022

Casualties

In October 2022, there were 107 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar, 34 of which caused 155 civilian casualties, 49 of whom were killed and 106 injured. Civilian casualties included at least 11 children and 22 women. Civilians accounted for 19% of the total 798 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 643 armed-actor casualties were also recorded, 427 of whom were killed and 216 injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 95% (148), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 35% (55) occurred in villages, 29% (45) at public gatherings, 12% (18) in police stations, 3% (5) on roads, urban residential areas, and entertainment venues, respectively, 3% (4) in schools, 2% (3) in encampments, 1% (2) in hospitals and public buildings respectively, and <1% (1) in places of worship. 

The states in which civilian casualties were reported in Myanmar were Kachin (50 civilian casualties), Rakhine (29), Karen (27), Yangon (19), Kayah (11), Sagaing (6), Chin (4), Mon (3), Magway (3), Tanintharyi (2), and Mandalay (1).

The majority of civilian casualties, 82% (127), were caused by the use of explosive weapons by Myanmar military forces. Non-state actors caused 14% (22) of civilian casualties. Specifically, 12% (18) of civilian casualties were reportedly caused by unknown non-state actors, 2% (3) by groups belonging to the People’s Defense Forces, and <1% (1) by the Guerilla Zero Defense Force.

Ground-launched weapons were the cause of 35% (55) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific shelling (38), artillery shelling (16), and grenades (1). Air-launched weapons caused 35% (54) of civilian casualties, specifically air strikes. Combined explosive weapons caused 125 (19) of civilian casualties, and directly-emplaced weapons caused 17% (27) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific IEDs (19) and landmines (8). 

The highest casualty incident occurred on 24 October 2022, when 17 civilians were killed and 28 injured in a Myanmar military airstrike on a music festival in Kansi, Kachin, celebrating the Kachin Independence Organisation. 

The number of recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar in October 2022 saw a significant rise from August, in which 44 incidents were recorded, which caused 115 civilian casualties (27 killed and 88 injured). In August, 49 reported incidents of explosive weapon use caused 103 civilian casualties (34 killed and 69 injured). 

Sources: Radio Free Asia, The Irrawaddy, BBC

Healthcare

In October, five incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of healthcare were recorded in Myanmar. Four incidents took place in Sagaing region where there was heavy fighting between the military and local defense groups. 

In one incident on 21 October 2022, a makeshift hospital in Sagaing region was damaged in an airstrike by Myanmar military forces. A civilian was killed and the hospital building, medicines, hospital staff homes, and a hall were damaged. 

Sources: Irrawaddy, Khit Thit Media, Radio Free Asia

Myanmar

September 2022

Casualties

In September 2022, there were 44 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar, 31 of which caused 115 civilian casualties, 27 of whom were killed and 88 injured. Civilian casualties included at least 44 children and 14 women. Civilians accounted for 56% of the total 207 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 82 armed actors were also reportedly killed and 10 injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 94% (108), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 39% (45) occurred in villages, 21% (24) in schools, 17% (20) in places of worship, 7% (8) on roads, 6% (7) in urban residential areas, and 3% (4) in public buildings. 

The states in which civilian casualties were reported in Myanmar were Sagaing (38 civilian casualties), Rakhine (28), Shan (26), Kachin (7), Karen (7), Mandalay (4), Mon (3), Chin (1), and Magway (1).

The majority of civilian casualties, 86% (99), were caused by the use of explosive weapons by Myanmar military forces. Groups of unknown name and status were the reported perpetrator in the case of 8% (9) of civilian casualties. Groups belonging to the People’s Defense Forces (PDF) were the reported perpetrators in the case of 6% (7) of civilian casualties.

Ground-launched weapons were the cause of 62% (71) of civilian casualties, specifically artillery shells (49), non-specific shelling (21), and mortars (1). Air-launched weapons caused 21% (24) of civilian casualties, specifically air strikes. Directly-emplaced weapons caused 17% (20) of civilian casualties, specifically landmines (10), roadside bombs (6), and non-specific IEDs (4). 

The highest casualty incident occurred on 16 September 2022, when seven children were killed and 17 civilians injured, including 14 children, in air strikes by Myanmar military forces on a monastic school in Let Yet Kone village, Sagaing. 

The number of recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar in September 2022 saw a small decrease from August, in which 49 incidents were recorded. However, fewer civilian casualties, 103, were recorded in August. In July, 41 reported incidents of explosive weapon use caused 64 civilian casualties (22 killed and 42 injured). 

Sources: Irrawaddy, Radio Free Asia, AP

Healthcare

In September 2022, three incidents of explosive weapon use affected civilian access to healthcare in Myanmar.

On 09 September 2022, a landmine detonated as two local non-governmental organisation’s ambulances made their way back to Ye town from Mawlamyine town after dropping off patients. The vehicles were attacked with small firearms. The landmine detonation damaged one of the two ambulances and critically injured two volunteer health workers. 

On 18 September 2022, a local defence forces medic was killed in a landmine detonation on her way back after delivering medical care in Kayah state, and on 29 September, a bomb was thrown at a civilian vehicle killing two military doctors and two military officers in Nanhkan town, Shan state. A local defence force claimed responsibility for the attack but did not mention the name. 

Sources: Ayeyarwaddy Times, DVB, Radio Free Asia, Kantarawaddy Times, Myaelatt AthanThe 74 Media, Khit Thit Media, Telegram, Voice of Myanmar

Myanmar

August 2022

Casualties

In August 2022, there were 49 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar, 30 of which caused 103 civilian casualties, 34 of whom were killed and 69 injured. Civilian casualties included at least 13 children and 12 women. Civilians accounted for 28% of the total 365 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 158 armed actors were also reportedly killed and 104 were injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 84% (87), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 54% (56) occurred in villages, 19% (20) at public gatherings, 3% (3) in hospitals, 3% (3) police stations, 2% (2) in places of worship, 2% (2) on roads, and <1% (1) in public buildings. 

The states in which civilian casualties were reported in Myanmar were Sagaing (42 civilian casualties), Rakhine (22), Chin (12), Karen (10), Bago (5), Kachin (5), Shan (3), Mandalay (2), and Mon (2).

The majority of civilian casualties, 83% (86), were caused by the use of explosive weapons by Myanmar military forces. Groups of unknown name and status were the reported perpetrator in the case of 12% (12) of civilian casualties. Groups belonging to the People’s Defense Forces (PDF) were the reported perpetrators in the case of 3% (3) of civilian casualties, and unknown non-state actors were perpetrators in the case of 2% (2) of civilian casualties.

Ground-launched weapons were the cause of 43% (44) of civilian casualties, specifically artillery shells (36), non-specific shelling (4), mortars (3), and grenades (1). Air-launched weapons caused 40% (41) of civilian casualties, specifically air strikes. Directly-emplaced weapons caused 17% (18) of civilian casualties, specifically landmines (11) and non-specific IEDs (7). 

The highest casualty incident occurred on 11 August 2022, when at least 20 civilians were injured and seven PDF fighters killed in Myanmar military airstrikes on Yin Paung Taing village, in Sagaing, while the villagers were gathered to give lunch to the fighters. 

The number of recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar in August 2022 saw a small rise from July, in which 41 incidents were recorded and 64 civilian casualties (22 killed and 42 injured). In June, 53 reported incidents of explosive weapon use caused 65 civilian casualties (22 killed, 43 injured). 

Sources: Irrawaddy

Healthcare

On 09 August 2022, staff housing for health workers and hundreds of civilians' homes were damaged during a Myanmar military airstrike in Kachin state, Myanmar.

Source: Voice of Myanmar

Myanmar

July 2022

Casualties

In July 2022, there were 41 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar, 23 of which caused 64 civilian casualties, 22 of whom were killed and 42 injured. Civilian casualties included at least 15 children and five women. Civilians accounted for 26% of the total 246 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 126 armed actors were also reportedly killed and 56 were injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 94% (60), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 47% (30) occurred in villages, 20% (13) in commercial premises, 9% (5) in encampments, 6% (4) on agricultural land, 5% (3) in urban residential areas, 5% (3) in places of worship, and 3% (2) in public buildings. An additional 6% (4) of civilian casualties occurred in agricultural land.

The states in which civilian casualties were reported in Myanmar were Karen (17 civilian casualties), Sagaing (15), Yangon (15), Rakhine (8), Shane (4), Kachin (2), Chin (2), and Magwe (1).

The majority of civilian casualties, 65% (42), were caused by the use of explosive weapons by Myanmar military forces. Unknown non-state actors were the reported perpetrator in the case of 23% (15) of civilian casualties. Groups of unknown status and name were the reported perpetrators in the case of 11% (7) of civilian casualties.

Ground-launched weapons were the cause of 34% (22) of civilian casualties, specifically artillery shells (15 civilian casualties), non-specific shelling (5), and mortars (2). Air-launched weapons caused 33% (21) of civilian casualties, specifically air strikes (14 civilian casualties) and air-dropped bombs (7). Directly-emplaced weapons caused 33% (21) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific IEDs (13) and landmines (8). 

The highest casualty incident occurred on 12 July 2022, when two civilians were killed and 11 injured in an IED explosion near a shopping center in Yangon. 

The number of recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar in July 2022 saw a small decrease from June, in which 55 incidents were recorded and 67 civilian casualties (24 killed and 43 injured). In May, 41 reported incidents of explosive weapon use caused 87 civilian casualties (34 killed, 53 injured). 

Sources: AFP, AFP II

Healthcare

In July 2022, four incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of healthcare were recorded in Myanmar. Two hospitals in Sagaing and Yangon regions were damaged by ground-launched rockets fired by opposition groups including the People’s Defence Force (PDF). A hospital in Karen state was also damaged by Myanmar military airstrikes. 

In a separate incident, a landmine detonated when a group of seven ambulances with patients on board drove over it in Sagaing, causing damage. 

Source: Eleven Media

Myanmar

June 2022

Casualties

In June 2022, there were 55 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar, 26 of which caused 67 civilian casualties, 24 of whom were killed and 43 injured. Civilian casualties included at least nine children and 23 women. Civilians accounted for 23% of the total 296 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 191 armed actors were also reportedly killed and 38 were injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 93% (62), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 64% (43) occurred in villages, 15% (10) in urban residential areas, 6% (4) in encampments, 3% (2) on agricultural land, 1% (1) in places of worship, and 3% (2) of civilian casualties occurred in other populated locations. 

The states in which civilian casualties were reported in Myanmar were Sagaing (27 civilian casualties), Karen (7), Chin (6), Shan (6), Bago (5), Rakhine (4), Kachin (4), Yangon (3), Mon (3), and Magwe (2).

The majority of civilian casualties, 79% (53), were caused by the use of explosive weapons by Myanmar military forces. Unknown non-state actors were the reported perpetrator in the case of 4% (3) of civilian casualties, while People’s Defense Forces were reportedly responsible for 1% (1) of civilian casualties. Groups of unknown status and name were the reported perpetrators in the case of 15% (10) of civilian casualties.

Ground-launched weapons were the cause of 81% (54) of civilian casualties, specifically artillery shells (33 civilian casualties), shelling (17), and mortars (4). Directly-emplaced weapons caused 15% (10) of civilian casualties, specifically landmines (7) and non-specific IEDs (3). 

The highest casualty incident occurred on 13 June 2022, when seven civilians were injured in Myanmar military shelling of Tar Han village, in Sagaing.

The number of recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar in June 2022 saw a small increase from May, in which 41 incidents were recorded. However, those incidents caused 87 civilian casualties (34 killed and 53 injured). In April, 10 reported incidents of explosive weapon use caused 12 civilian casualties (2 killed, 10 injured). 

Sources: Myanmar Peace Monitor

Aid access

On 17 June 2022 in Myanmar, two artillery shells hit the Zup Aung Camp for internally displaced persons in Kutkai town, Shan state.

Source: DVB

Education

In June 2022, four incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of education were recorded in Myanmar. Home-made bombs, grenades and mines exploded inside or near four educational facilities including two high schools, a middle school and a local Township Education Office in Kachin state, Magway and Sagaing, Tanintharyi regions.

Sources: DVB I, DVB II, DVB III, DVB IV

Myanmar

May 2022

Casualties

In May 2022, there were 41 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar, 23 of which caused 87 civilian casualties, 34 of whom were killed and 53 injured. Civilian casualties included at least 13 children and 15 women. Civilians accounted for 44% of the total 198 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 83 armed actors were also reportedly killed and 28 were injured. 

The majority of civilian casualties, 95% (83), occurred in populated areas. Specifically, 32% (28) occurred in villages, 28% (24) at public gatherings, 22% (19) in places of worship, 11% (10) on public transport, and 2% (2) at entertainment venues. 

The states in which civilian casualties were reported in Myanmar were Sagaing (51 civilian casualties), Yangon (10), Naypyidaw (6), Chin (4), Magwe (3), Rakhine (3), Bago (3), Mon (3), Karen (2), and Kachin (2).

The majority of civilian casualties, 75% (65), were caused by the use of explosive weapons by Myanmar military forces. Unknown non-state actors were the reported perpetrator in the case of 14% (12) of civilian casualties, while People’s Defense Forces were reportedly responsible for 7% (6) of civilian casualties. Groups of unknown status and name were the reported perpetrators in the case of 5% (4) of civilian casualties.

Ground-launched weapons were the cause of 67% (58) of civilian casualties, specifically shelling and artillery shells. Directly emplaced weapons caused 26% (23) of civilian casualties, specifically non-specific IEDs (16 civilian casualties) and landmines (7). 

The highest casualty incident occurred on 19 May 2022, when five internally displaced civilians were killed and 13 were injured in a junta artillery attack on a village in Sagaing as they gathered to see if their homes were being attacked.  

The number of recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar in May 2022 saw a sharp rise from April, in which 10 incidents were recorded that caused 12 civilian casualties (2 killed and 10 injured). In March, 10 reported incidents of explosive weapon use caused 57 civilian casualties (28 killed, 29 injured). 

Sources: Myanmar Now 

Myanmar

April 2022

Casualties

In April 2022, there were 10 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar, four of which caused 12 civilian casualties, two of whom were killed and 10 injured. Civilian casualties included at least one child and one woman. Civilians accounted for 18% of the total 67 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 51 armed actors were also reportedly killed and four were injured. 

Ground-launched weapons, specifically artillery shells and shelling, were the cause of 10 civilian casualties, while directly-emplaced weapons, including improvised explosive devices and landmines, were the cause of two civilian casualties. 

The incident that caused the highest number of civilian casualties took place on 6 April 2022, when two civilians were killed and four injured when artillery shells hit a home in Pa Hike Nyin village (Kayah state).

Sources: Irrawaddy

Myanmar

March 2022

Casualties

In March 2022, there were 10 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar, eight of which caused 57 civilian casualties, 39 of whom were killed and 18 injured. Civilian casualties included at least one child and one woman. Civilians accounted for 73% of the total 78 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 21 armed actors were also reportedly killed.

All of the civilian casualties occurred in populated areas. The majority of casualties occurred in villages (32), and civilian casualties were also recorded in places of worship (21), transport related infrastructure (3), and agricultural land (1).

The majority of civilian casualties occurred in Sagaing region (37 civilian casualties), as well as Kayin (11), Kayah (5), Yangon (3), and Chin (1). 

Ground-launched weapons, specifically artillery shells and shelling, were the cause of 53 civilian casualties, while directly-emplaced weapons, including improvised explosive devices and landmines, were the cause of four civilian casualties. 

Myanmar state military forces were the reported perpetrator in the case of 93% (53) of civilian casualties. Non-state actors were the reported perpetrator in the case of three civilian casualties, though the group name was not reported. The perpetrator status and group in the case of one civilian casualty was unknown.

The incident with the highest civilian fatality rate took place on 9 March 2022, when 11 civilians were killed, including three children, when Myanmar state forces shelled a monastery where civilians, including internally displaced persons, were sheltering in Kalay, Sagaing.

There was a notable decline in the number of incidents of explosive weapon use, as well as the resulting civilian casualties, recorded in Myanmar in March 2022. The number of recorded incidents fell by 47%, from 19 in February to 10 in March. The number of civilian casualties from explosive weapon use in Myanmar saw a decline of 19%, from 70 in February to 57 civilians in March.

Sources: Myanmar Now I, Myanmar Now II

 

Aid access

In March 2022, two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting aid access and healthcare were recorded in Myanmar. In one instance, on 14 March 2022, Myanmar military forces shelling in Kayah state, Myanmar, damaged a clinic where displaced civilians were sheltering. 

Sources: Mizzima and Facebook, Radio Free Asia 

Healthcare

On 21 March 2022, a military vehicle in the Sagaing region of Myanmar struck a landmine, killing a military doctor and injuring several other soldiers. 

Source: DVB

Myanmar

February 2022

Casualties

In February 2022, there were 19 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar. Across ten of these incidents, there were 70 civilian casualties recorded, 13 of whom were killed and 57 injured. Civilian casualties included at least one child and one woman. Civilians accounted for 47% of the total 150 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 60 armed actors were also reportedly killed and 20 injured.

All of the civilian casualties occurred in populated areas. The majority of casualties occurred in a public gathering (40), and the remaining civilian casualties occured in villages (30).

Ground-launched weapons, specifically grenades and artillery shelling, were the cause of 53 civilian casualties, while air-launched weapons, specifically airstrikes, caused ten civilian casualties, and directly-emplaced weapons (landmines) caused two civilian casualties. The use of multiple types of explosive weapons, specifically the combined use of airstrikes and artillery shelling, resulted in five civilian casualties. 

Myanmar state military forces were the reported perpetrator in the case of 28 of the 70 civilian casualties. Non-state actors were the reported perpetrator in the case of 40 civilian casualties, and the perpetrator status and group name in the case of two civilian casualties was unknown.

The highest casualty incident took place on 1 February 2022, when two civilians were killed and 38 injured in a grenade attack by non-state actors on a pro-military rally in Tachileik, Shan state, eastern Myanmar. 

There was a 67% increase in the number of civilian casualties from explosive weapons recorded in February 2022 (70), when compared to January 2022 (42), marking the highest monthly civilian casualty figures recorded since April 2021. Armed-actor casualties also increased by 116%, from 37 in January to 80 in February. The number of recorded incidents of explosive weapon use was the same in February as in January, at 19 incidents. This is among the highest number of incidents recorded in the last year.

Sources: AFP, Garda

Aid access

On 10 February 2022, a camp for internally displaced persons in Demoso township in Loikaw district, Kayah state, Myanmar, was hit by an artillery shell fired by Myanmar military forces. One person was injured and several shelters and a church were destroyed. 

Source: Myanmar Now

Healthcare

On 02 February 2022, an ambulance transporting COVID-19 vaccines to the Monywa General Hospital struck a landmine on the Monywa-Mandalay highway in Ye-U township, Sagaing region, Myanmar. 

Source: People Media 

Myanmar

January 2022

Casualties

In January 2022, there were 17 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar. Across 12 of these incidents, there were 39 civilian casualties recorded, 15 of whom were killed and 24 injured. Civilian casualties included at least 15 children, five women and three men. Civilians accounted for 53% of the total 74 casualties of explosive weapon use, as 21 armed actors were also reportedly killed and 14 injured.

All of the civilian casualties occurred in populated areas. The majority of casualties occurred in villages (32), while others occurred in an encampment (3), an urban residential area (3), and a road (1).

The use of multiple types of explosive weapons, specifically the combined use of airstrikes and artillery shelling, was the leading cause of civilian harm, resulting in 14 civilian casualties. Ground-launched weapons, specifically artillery shelling, was the cause of 10 civilian casualties, while air-launched weapons, specifically airstrikes and air-dropped bombs caused nine civilian casualties, and directly-emplaced weapons (non-specific IEDs) caused six. 

Myanmar state military forces were the reported perpetrator in the case of 33 of the 39 civilian casualties. Unknown non-state actors were the reported perpetrator in the case of three civilian casualties, and the perpetrator status and group name in the case of three civilian casualties was unknown.

The highest casualty incident last month took place on 12 January 2022, when 11 civilians were injured and one killed by Myanmar state airstrikes and artillery shelling of a village in Kawkareik, Karen state. 

There was a 34% increase in the number of civilian casualties recorded in Myanmar from December 2021 to January 2022. However, there was a 57% decline in the total number of casualties from explosive weapon use in this time period, as fewer armed-actors were killed and injured last month. 

Sources: BNI, Myanmar Now

Aid access

In January 2022, two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting aid access were recorded in Myanmar. In these incidents, Myanmar military airstrikes hit two camps for internally displaced persons and three youths working for local charity. 

On 17 January 2022 in Kayah state, Myanmar military fighter jets reportedly launched air strikes on two camps for internally displaced persons. While one of the camps was empty, the second hosted 50 people who fled violence Moso village. Two girls and a man were killed. 

On 16 January 2022, in Kayah state, three youths working for a local charity were killed in airstrikes by Myanmar military forces.

Sources: Democratic Voice of Burma I, Democratic Voice of Burma II, and Radio Free Asia

 

Education

In January 2022, two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting education were recorded in Myanmar. 

On 06 January 2022, in the Sagaing region of Myanmar, Myanmar military forces stationed at the Kalay Technological University reportedly fired artillery shells at the People's Defense Force. On 14 January 2022, in Sagaing the region of Myanmar, Myanmar military airstrikes targeted forces of the People’s Defense Force stationed at the village school. 

Sources: Myanmar Now I and Myanmar Now II

Healthcare

On 26 January 2022, in the Sagaing region of Myanmar, an ambulance hit a landmine while transporting a pregnant patient to the hospital, injuring the patient and killing the patient's relative. Responsibility for the attack was reportedly attributed to the People’s Defense Force.

Sources: Facebook and People Media 

Myanmar

December 2021

Casualties

In December 2021, there were 19 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use, six of which caused a total of 29 civilian casualties, six of whom were injured and 23 killed. Civilians accounted for 17% of the total 172 casualties of explosive weapon use in Myanmar in December, as 128 armed actors were reportedly killed and 15 injured.

All but two of the civilian casualties occurred in populated areas. The majority of casualties occurred in villages (22), a public building (3) and an urban residential area (2). 

The states in which civilian casualties occurred were the border of Sagaing and Magway (10), Magway (9), Karen (3), Mandalay (3), Sagaing (2), and Shan (2).

The majority of civilian casualties, 66% (19), were caused by airstrikes by Myanmar military forces. Ground-launched weapons were the cause of 28% (8) of civilian casualties, specifically artillery shelling (5) and grenades (3). The Myanmar military was the cause of 26 of 29 civilian casualties. 

The highest casualty incident took place on 22 December, when 10 civilians were killed by Myanmar state airstrikes on villages in Sagaing and Magwe regions. It is possible that armed actors were among the casualties. 

Sources: The Irrawaddy

Healthcare

In December 2021, nine incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of healthcare were recorded in Myanmar. 

Ambulances hit landmines, a COVID-19 vaccination centre and hospital were damaged by shelling, a doctor was killed and an ambulance hit in airstrikes and bombs detonated outside hospitals. In one instance, a bomb exploded outside of North Dagon township Hospital. A second series of bombs exploded in the same location after approximately 50 Myanmar military troops arrived to investigate. The local People's Defence Force (PDF) claimed responsibility. In a separate incident, an ambulance carrying injured civilians was hit by a Myanmar-military airstrike. Patients and doctors in the ambulance were reportedly injured. 

On 06 December 2021, near Kyee-Pin-Chaung village in the Sagaing region, an ambulance was struck and damaged by a landmine, injuring four health workers. On 07 December 2021, near Tigyaing township, Sagaing division, an ambulance was struck and damaged by a landmine, and the driver suffered shrapnel injuries. On 13 December 2021, in Ye-U town  in the Sagaing region, mortar shelling hit and damaged a COVID-19 vaccination centre. On 14 December 2021, in Thanlyin township in the Yangon region, a bomb detonated outside Thanlyin General Hospital. No damage was reported. 

On 18 December 2021, in Mway Le village in the Magway region, an airstrike killed a doctor and eight other civilians, and on 20 December 2021 in Wamma-Thu village, Chin state, artillery fire by Myanmar military forces hit Wamma-Thu station hospital three times. 

On 21 December 2021, in North Dagon township in the Yangon region, a bomb exploded outside of North Dagon township Hospital, limiting patient access to the facility. A second series of bombs exploded in the same location after approximately 50 members of the Mynmar military arrived to investigate. The local People's Defence Force (PDF) claimed responsibility. 

On 25 December 2021 near Htee MaeWah Khee village in Kayin state, an ambulance carrying injured civilians was hit by a Myanmar military airstrike. Patients and doctors in the ambulance were reportedly injured. On 27 December 2021, in Kalaymyo town, Sagaing region, a bomb of suspected PDF origin exploded at a military hospital, killing seven members of the Myanmar military. 

Sources: Chindwin News Agency, Delta News Agency,  DVB News, GNLM, Khit Thit Media, Mindat Post, Mizzima News, NUG, River News, River NewsRiver News, RFA  Burmese, Thit Htoo Lwin News, and Voice of Myanmar

Myanmar

November 2021

Casualties

In November 2021, there were six recorded incidents of explosive weapon use causing 10 civilian casualties in Myanmar. Of these, three were killed and seven injured. Civilians accounted for 14% of the total 74 recorded casualties. There were an additional 64 armed-actor casualties, including 34 deaths and 30 injuries. 

All civilian casualties occurred in populated areas, specifically villages in Sagaing, and were attributed to Myanmar military forces.

Air-launched explosive weapons were the cause of 60% (6) of civilian casualties, specifically airstrikes, while ground-launched weapons, specifically artillery shelling, were the cause of 40% (4) civilian casualties. 

The highest casualty incident took place on 27 November 2021, when six civilians were reportedly killed by Myanmar military airstrikes on Depayin township in Sagaing. 

Sources: Myanmar Now

Healthcare

On 09 November 2021, in Pekon township, Taunggyi district in Shan State, Myanmar, Myanmar military forces shelled the town, damaging Pekon People’s Hospital. 

Sources: Khit Thit News

Myanmar

October 2021

Casualties

In October 2021, there were 11 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use, six of which caused 18 civilian casualties, including five fatalities and 13 injuries. Civilians represented 39% (18) of the total recorded casualties (46). There were an additional 48 armed-actor casualties, 15 of whom were killed and 13 injured. All civilian deaths and injuries occurred in populated areas, specifically villages. 

Ground-launched weapons, specifically artillery shelling and mortars, accounted for 78% (14) of civilian casualties, and directly-emplaced weapons, specifically landmines, caused the other four civilian causalites. The majority of civilian casualties occured in Shan state (13), followed by Kayah (3), and Chin (2). 

The highest casualty incident took place on the morning of 24 October 2021, when one woman was killed and five other civilians injured (including two children) by artillery shelling by Myanmar military forces on a village in Moebye, Shan state. 

Sources: Myanmar Now, The Irrawaddy

Education

On 29 October 2021, in Monywa city and district in the Sagaing region of Myanmar, a combined force of Monywa Heroes Group and People's Defense Force (PDF)-South Monywa reportedly carried out bomb attacks at three places, including a school where the Myanmar military was stationed. 

Sources: Mizzima

Myanmar

September 2021

Casualties

There were 17 recorded incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar in September 2021, 10 of which caused 39 civilian casualties. Civilians accounted for 62% (39) of all casualties (63), including 16 fatalities and 23 injuries, 12 of whom were reportedly children. There were an additional 24 recorded armed-actor casualties. All civilian casualties occurred in populated areas and the majority, 64% (25), were caused by ground-launched weapons, specifically artillery shelling and grenades. The remaining 36% (14) were caused by directly-emplaced weapons, specifically IEDs. State actors caused 14 civilian casualties, all perpetrated by Myanmar armed forces. Non-state actors of unknown affiliation caused 12 civilian casualties, and 13 civilian casualties were perpetrated by unknown actors. 

The deadliest incident of September 2021 took place on 9 September, when nine civilians were killed by the shelling of a village in Gangaw, Magway, by Myanmar armed forces. On 13 September, there were two attacks in Mandalay province that, combined, killed three civilians and injured 15. The most deadly attack occurred in Mandalay city where a grenade thrown at a police station in Kyauk Thabeik resulted in the death of two civilians and injury of 11 others, including seven civilians and four armed actors. In total, 20 of the 39 total civilian casualties occured in Mandalay province.

The number of civilian casualties resulting from the use of explosive weapons in Myanmar has more than tripled since August 2021, when explosive weapons used resulted in 11 civilian casualties. 

Sources: Myanmar Now, BNI 

Healthcare

On 22 September 2021, in Kyaukse township in the Mandalay region of Myanmar, a car bomb exploded outside the public hospital, killing one person and injuring two others. 

Sources: Twitter

 

Myanmar

August 2021

There were 4 incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar in August 2021, and 11 civilian casualties, four of whom were killed and seven injured. There were no recorded armed-actor casualties. Seven civilian casualties were caused by directly emplaced weapons, specifically IEDs and landmines, while four were caused by ground launched weapons, specifically shelling.  In the deadliest incident this month, at least four civilian members of the same family were killed, including one child, by Myanmar State forces shelling of a village in Muse, Shan state. The number of civilian casualties of explosive weapon use in August has decreased by nearly half since July, when 21 civilians were killed and injured by explosive weapons. 

Sources: BNI, Radio Free Asia

Healthcare

In August 2021 in Myanmar, two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of healthcare were recorded. A grenade was thrown at a health clinic in Mon state and two bombs exploded at the back of a hospital in Yangon. Sources: ACLED1 and Mizzim

Myanmar

July 2021

There were 10 incidents of explosive weapon use in Myanmar in July 2021, resulting in 21 civilian casualties, 5 of whom were killed and 16 injured. There were 41 armed-actor casualties across two incidents of explosive weapon use. 17 of the 21 civilian casualties were perpetrated by Myanmar state using ground launched weapons, primarily artillery shelling, all in populated areas. The highest number of civilian fatalities from explosive weapon use in the month occurred on 2 July, when at least 40 artillery shells fired by state forces hit a village in Sagaing, 20km south-west of Mandalay in central Myanmar. Four civilians were killed and 21 armed-actors were killed and 10 injured in the attack.

Source: The Irrawaddy.

Education

In July 2021 in Myanmar, two incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of education were recorded. A primary school in Kachin and a high school in Magway region were damaged by directly emplaced explosive weapons. Between February and May 2021, homemade or crude bombs planted by unidentified groups were found or detonated on school premises at least 40 times. Source: ACLED1.

Myanmar

June 2021

On 26 June 2021, a child was killed by a landmine while walking to a farm with his family in Mindat Township, Chin State. Source: Myanmar Now, Irrawaddy.

Healthcare

In June 2021 in Myanmar, three incidents of explosive weapon use affecting health services were recorded. Two incidents were reported in Ayeyarwady region and one in Chin state. Sources: MDHR, Mizzima News and Mizzima News.

Myanmar

May 2021

In an escalation of hostilities in Myanmar in May 2021, 14 incidents of explosive weapon use were recorded, resulting in 66 civilian casualties, accounting for 81% of total casualties. Though the number of incidents of explosive weapons use has doubled, from seven in April to fourteen in May, civilian fatalities have dropped significantly, from 91 killed in April, to 19 killed in May. Recorded incidents are seen to be less deadly but more injurious, with 47 civilians injured in May, compared to two people who were reported as wounded in April. Most incidents took place in populated areas and involved the use of ground-launched weapons, including shelling, grenade, and mortar attacks, by Myanmar state forces. Airstrikes by state forces, caused exclusively civilian casualties, 13 in total, three of which were fatal. The worst incident for civilian casualties took place on 2 May, in Hpakant, Kachin State, in northern Myanmar when at least 20 civilians were wounded and 1 killed by State forces detonating hand grenades during a public demonstration. Source: The Irrawaddy 

Education

During May 2021 in Myanmar, 32 incidents of explosive weapon use affecting the provision of education were reported. Schools and universities were damaged by directly emplaced explosive weapons including homemade bombs. Incidents were reported in 11 of Myanmar’s 21 administrative subdivisions and were most frequent in the central Magway region. Sources: ACLED1, Tachileik News Agency and The Irrawaddy 

1Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED) database attribution policy. Accessed 02 June 2021.

Healthcare

During May 2021 in Myanmar, three incidents of explosive weapon use affecting health services were reported in Bago, Sagaing and Shan states. Hospitals and staff quarters were damaged and a health worker was injured by directly emplaced explosive weapons including homemade bombs. Sources: MDHR, Mizzima News, Tachileik News Agency and Zalen News